Journal of Behavioral Education

, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp 135–152 | Cite as

Educational capital: A proposed model and its relationship to academic and social behavior of students at risk

  • Vikki F. Howard
  • T. F. McLaughlin
  • Edward F. Vacha
Regular Papers

Abstract

We examine and review the relationships between variables descriptive of cultural and social capital and the development of a new term: educational capital. While school personnel can use demographic variables to predict outcomes, such predictors do not lend themselves to implementing treatments or programs which may more directly mediate the effects of unequal cultural, social and human capital across the population. To increase and improve the education capital of its constituents, school can: set high expectations, match student skill level with curricular materials, provide home work hotlines, set up peer tutoring programs, develop partnerships with businesses and other community groups, match teacher characteristics with those of the student population, and reduce class size. Likewise, ways that parents might increase their children's educational capital include increasing attendance, taking part in parent-teacher discussions, helping with homework, participating in extracurricular activities, and transmitting aspirations in parent-child interactions.

Key words

cultural capital social capital educational capital sociodemographic variables 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alexander, K. L., Entwisle, D. R., & Thompson, M. S. (1987). School performance, status relations, and the structure of sentiment: Bringing the teacher back in.American Sociological Review, 52, 665–682.Google Scholar
  2. Astone, N. M., & McLanahan, S. S. (1991). Family structure, parental practices and high school completion.American Sociological Review, 56, 309–320.Google Scholar
  3. Baker, D. P., & Stevenson, D. L. (1986). Mothers' strategies for children's school achievement: Managing the transition to high school.Sociology of Education, 59, 156–166.Google Scholar
  4. Barnett, W. S. (1993). Benefit-cost analysis of preschool education: Findings from a 25-year follow-up.American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 63, 500–508.Google Scholar
  5. Becker, G. S. (1981). Human capital, effort and the sexual division of labor.Journal of Labor Economics, 3, (Suppl), S33-S58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Becker, W. C. (1972).Parents are teachers. Champaign, IL: Research Press.Google Scholar
  7. Becker, W. C. (1977). Teaching reading to and language to the disadvantaged: What we have learned from field research.Harvard Educational Review, 47, 518–543.Google Scholar
  8. Bielby, G. S., & Bielby, W. T. (1989). She works hard for the money: Household responsibilities and the allocation of work effort.American Journal of Sociology, 93, 1031–1059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bielby, W. T., & Bielby, D. D. (1989). Family ties: Balancing commitments to work and family in dual earner households.American Sociological Review, 554, 776–792.Google Scholar
  10. Biniaminov, I., & Glasman, N. S. (1983). School determinants of student achievement in secondary education.American Educational Research Journal, 20, 251–268.Google Scholar
  11. Bott, E. (1971).Family and social networks. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  12. Bourdieu, P. (1977). Cultural reproduction and social reproduction. In J. Karabel & A. H. Halsey (Eds.),Power and ideology in education (pp. 487–511). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Coleman, J. S. (1989). Social capital in the creation human capital.American Journal of Sociology, 94, [Suppl] S95-S120.Google Scholar
  14. Coleman, J. S. (1990).Foundations of social theory. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.Google Scholar
  15. Coleman, J. S. (1991).Parental involvement in education.Policy perspective series Report No. PIP-91-983. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  16. DiMaggio, P. (1982). Cultural capital and school success: The impact of status culture participation on the grades of U.S. high school students.American Sociological Review, 47, 189–201.Google Scholar
  17. DiMaggio, P., & Mohr, J. (1985). Cultural capital, educational attainment, and marital selection.American Journal of Sociology, 90, 1231–1261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dornbusch, S. M., Ritter, P. L., & Leiderman, P. H. (1987). The relation of parenting style to adolescent school performance.Child Development, 58, 1244–1257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Ekstrom, R. B., Goertz, J. M., Pollack, J. M., & Rock, D. A. (1986). Who drops out of high school and why? Findings from a national study.Teachers College Record, 87, 356–373.Google Scholar
  20. Fine, M. (1986). The urban adolescents drop into and out of public high school.Teachers College Record, 87, 393–409.Google Scholar
  21. Fine, M. (1995). The politics of who's at-risk. In B. B. Swadener & S. Lubeck (Eds.),Children and families “at promise:” Deconstructing the discourse of risk (pp. 76–94). New York: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  22. Finn, J. D. (1989). Withdrawing from school.Review of Educational Research, 59, 117–142.Google Scholar
  23. Funk & Wagnalls Standard Dictionary (1983). Philadelphia: Lippincott & Crowell, Publishers: Author.Google Scholar
  24. Franca, V. M., Kerr, M. M., Reitz, A. L., & Lambert, D. (1990). Peer tutoring among behaviorally disordered students: Academic and social benefits to tutor and tutee.Education and Treatment of Children, 13, 109–128.Google Scholar
  25. Heyns, B. (1978).Summer learning and the effects of school. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  26. Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., Bassler, O. C., & Brissie, J. S. (1992). Explorations in parent-school relations.Journal of Educational Research, 85, 287–294.Google Scholar
  27. Howard, V. F., McLaughlin, T. F., Traver, C, & Vacha, E. F. (1994, May).Educational capital: A new concept to assist at-risk children and youth. Paper presented at the 17th Annual Association for Behavior Analysis: International. Atlanta, GA.Google Scholar
  28. Hurn, C. J. (1993).The limits and possibilities of schooling. (3rd ed). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  29. Juster, F. T. (Ed.) (1974).Education, income, and human behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  30. Kohn, A. (1991). Caring kids: The role of the schools.Phi Delta Kappan, 496–506.Google Scholar
  31. Kozol, J. (1991).Savage inequities: Children in America's schools. New York: Harper-Perennial.Google Scholar
  32. Lareau, A. (1987). Social class differences in family-school relationships: The importance of cultural capital.Sociology of Education, 60, 73–85.Google Scholar
  33. Lareau, A. (1989).Home advantage: Intervention in elementary education. Philadelphia: The Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  34. MacLeod, J. (1994).Ain't makin' it: Leveled aspirations in a low income neighborhood (2nd ed). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  35. Madden, N. A., Slavin, R. E., Karweit, N. L., Dolan, L., & Wasik, B. A. (1991). Success for all.Phi Delta Kappan, 71, 593–599.Google Scholar
  36. Makedon, A. (1992). Reform and traditional public school: Toward a typology of conservative to radical reform.Illinois Schools Journal, 72, 15–22.Google Scholar
  37. McLaughlin, T. F., & Vacha, E. F. (1992). School programs for at-risk children and youth: A review.Education and Treatment of Children, 15, 112–120.Google Scholar
  38. Makedon, A. (1992). Reform and traditional public school: Toward a typology of conservative to radical reforms.Illinois Schools Journal, 72, 15–22.Google Scholar
  39. Murnane, R. J., Maynard, R. A., & Olds, J. C. (1980). Home resources and children's achievement.Review of Economics and Statistics, 63, 369–377.Google Scholar
  40. Parcel, T. L., & Menaghan, E. G. (1993). Family social capital and children's behavior problems.Social Psychology Quarterly, 56, 120–135.Google Scholar
  41. Persell, C. H. & Cookson Jr., P. W. (1987). Microcomputers and elite boarding schools: Educational innovation and social reproduction.Sociology of Education, 60, 123–134.Google Scholar
  42. Rosenthal, R., & Jacobson, L. (1968).Pygmalion in the classroom: Teacher expectations and pupils' intellectual development. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.Google Scholar
  43. Rumberger, R. W. (1987). High school dropouts: A review of issues and evidence.Review of Educational Research, 57, 101–121.Google Scholar
  44. Rumberger, R. W., Ghatak, R., Poulos, G., Ritter, P. L., & Dornbusch, S. M. (1990). Family influences on dropout behavior in one California high school.Sociology of Education, 63, 283–299.Google Scholar
  45. Sadovnik, A. R. (1991). Basil Bernsteins's theory of pedagogic practice: A structuralist approach.Sociology of Education, 64, 48–63.Google Scholar
  46. Slavin, R. E., Madden, N. A., Dolan, L. J., Wasik, B. A., Ross, S. M., & Smith, L. J. (1994). Whenever and where ever we choose: Replication of success for all.Phi Delta Kappan, 75, 639–647.Google Scholar
  47. Stanton-Salzar, R. D., & Dornbusch, S. M. (1995). Social capital and the reproduction of inequity: Information networks among Mexican-origin high school students.Sociology of Education, 68, 116–135.Google Scholar
  48. Stevenson, D. L., & Baker, D. P. (1987). The family-school relation and the child's school performance.Child Development, 58, 1348–1357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Summers, A. A., & Wolf, B. L. (1977). Do schools make a difference?American Economic Review, 67, 639–652.Google Scholar
  50. Teachman, J. D. (1987). Family background, educational resources, and educational attainment.American Sociological Review, 52, 548–557.Google Scholar
  51. Turnbull A., & Turnbull, R. H. (1990).Families, professionals, and exceptionalities. Columbus, OH: Merrill.Google Scholar
  52. Vacha, E. F., & McLaughlin, T. F. (1992). The social structural, family, school, and personal characteristics of at-risk students: Policy recommendations for school personnel.Journal of Education, 174(3), 9–25.Google Scholar
  53. Vacha, E. F., & McLaughlin, T. F. (1993). School failure and cultural capital: Families of at-risk students.The Canadian School Executive, 13(6), 8–11.Google Scholar
  54. Vacha, E. F., & McLaughlin, T. F. (1994). At-risk students and parenting.The Canadian School Executive, 14(3/4), 25–27.Google Scholar
  55. Velez, W. (1989). High school attrition among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white youths.Sociology of Education, 62, 119–133.Google Scholar
  56. Wellisch, J. B., MacQueen, A. H., Carriere, R. A., & Duck, G. A. (1978). School management and organization in successful schools.Sociology of Education, 51, 211–226.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vikki F. Howard
    • 2
  • T. F. McLaughlin
    • 2
  • Edward F. Vacha
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SociologyGonzaga UniversitySpokane
  2. 2.Department of Special EducationGonzaga UniversitySpokane

Personalised recommendations