Journal of Behavioral Education

, Volume 6, Issue 3, pp 331–342 | Cite as

The effects of classwide peer tutoring on correct cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance by physical education majors

  • Phillip Ward
  • Marie C. Ward
Regular Papers


Previous research conducted on the effectiveness of basic life support skills courses has reported that participants typically do not achieve correct performance of life support skills. We used a multiple baseline design across subjects to assess the effects of a classwide peer tutoring intervention on the correct cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills of ten physical education majors. The classwide peer tutoring intervention consisted of (a) a checklist, (b) a prompting procedure, and (c) immediate feedback on performance. Procedural fidelity measures were taken on the correct implementation of the basic life supports skill course and on the implementation of the classwide peer tutoring intervention. Results indicated that students achieved and maintained 100% correct performance during the classwide per tuition condition. These results challenge the current polices of the American Red Cross and the American Heart Association who have reduced course performance criteria because participants were not achieving an adequate standard of performance.

Key words

peer tutoring cardiopulmonary resuscitation physical education procedural fidelity 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. American Red Cross (1993a, September 22nd).Health and Safety Notice: Updated questions and answers document for new CPR and first aid programs. (Issue No. 120), Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. American Red Cross Standard First Aid (1993b). St. Louis: Mosby Lifeline.Google Scholar
  3. American Red Cross First Aid and CPR: Instructors manual (1993c). St. Louis: Mosby Lifeline.Google Scholar
  4. Friesen, L., & Stotts, N. A. (1984). Retention of basic cardiac life support content: The effect of two teaching methods.Journal of Nursing Education, 23, 184–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Friman, P. C., Finney, J. W., Gasscock, S. G., Weigel, J. W., & Christophersen, E. R. (1986). Testicular self-examination: validation of a training strategy for early cancer detection.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 19, 87–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., Hodge, J. P., & Mathes, P. G. (1994). Importance of instructional complexity and role reciprocity to classwide peer tutoring.Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 9, 203–212.Google Scholar
  7. Gass, D. A., & Curry, L. (1983). Physicians' and nurses' retention of knowledge and skill after training in cardiopulmonary resuscitation.Canadian Medical Association Journal, 128, 550–551.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Houghton, S., & Bain, A. (1993). Peer tutoring with ESL and below-average readers.Journal of Behavioral Education, 3, 125–142.Google Scholar
  9. Kamps, D. M., Barbetta, P. M., Leonard, B. R., & Delquari, J. (1994). Classwide peer tutoring: An integration strategy to improve reading skills and promote per interactions among students with autism and general education peers.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 49–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Kaye, W., Rallis, S. F., Mancini, M. E., Linhares, K. C., Angell, M. L., Donovan, D. S., Zajano, N. C., & Finger, J. A. (1991). The problem of poor retention of cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills may lie with the instructor, not the learner or the curriculum.Resuscitation, 21, 61–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Kohler, F. W., & Greenwood, C. R. (1990). Effects of collateral peer support behaviors with the classwide peer tutoring program.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 307–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Maheady, L., Harper, G. R., & Sacca, K. (1988). Classwide peer tutoring system in a secondary resource program for the mildly handicapped.Journal of Research and Development in Education, 21, 76–83.Google Scholar
  13. Martin, W. J., Loomis, J. H., & Lloyd, C. W. (1983). CPR skills: Achievement and retention under stringent and relaxed criteria.American Journal of Public Health, 73, 1310–1312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. National conference on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiac care. (1992). Guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiac care.Journal of American Medical Association, 268, 2172–2181.Google Scholar
  15. Plank, C. H., & Steinke, K. R. (1989). Effect of two teaching methods on CPR retention.Journal of Nursing Staff Development, 5, 145–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Vanderschmidt, H., Burnap, T. K., & Thwaites, J. K. (1975). Evaluation of a cardiopulmonary resuscitation course for secondary schools.Medical Care, 13, 763–774.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Wilson, E., Brooks, B., & Tweed, W. A. (1983). CPR skills retention of lay basic rescuers.Annals of Emergency Medicine, 12, 482–484.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Phillip Ward
    • 1
  • Marie C. Ward
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Health and Human PerformanceUniversity of Nebraska-Lincoln

Personalised recommendations