Advertisement

Large but variable particulate flux in the Antarctic Ocean and its significance for the chemistry of Antarctic water

  • Shizuo Tsunogai
  • Shinichiro Noriki
  • Koh Harada
  • Taro Kurosaki
  • Yasunori Watanabe
  • Masaru Maedaa
Article

Abstract

Settling particles were collected at 1,460 m and 3,760 m depth in the Antarctic Ocean with sediment traps of time series type. The total deployment period of 40 days was divided into four terms of 10 days each. Seawater samples were collected both at deployment and retrieval of the traps at each site. During the 42 days the concentration of silicate in the surface water decreased by 32%, whereas those of nitrate and phosphate decreased by only 4–5%. The total particulate flux in the Antarctic Ocean is the largest among those hitherto observed in the world ocean. The time variation of the particulate flux at 1,460 m depth almost coincided with that at 3,760 m. The settling particles were comprised roughly of 80% biogenic silica, 15% organic matter and 5% other substances including sea salt. The clay fraction was only 0.05% at 1,460 m depth. The settling flux of biogenic silica agrees fairly well with the calculated rate of change in the concentration of silicate in the surface 100 m. Thus it is concluded that preferential propagation of diatoms reduces the concentration of silicate prior to other nutrients in the Antarctic Ocean.

Keywords

Settling World Ocean Clay Fraction Sediment Trap Seawater Sample 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bacon, M.P., C.-A. Huh, A.P. Fleer and W.G. Deuser (1985): Seasonality in the flux of natural radionuclides in the deep Sargasso Sea. Deep Sea Res.,32, 273–286.Google Scholar
  2. Broecker, W.S., D.W. Spencer and H. Craig (1982): GEOSECS Pacific Expedition. Vol. 3 Hydrographic data 1973–1974. IDOE, NSF, Washington D.C., 137 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Deuser, W.G., E.H. Ross and R.F. Anderson (1981): Seasonality in the supply of sediment to the deep Sargasso Sea and implication for the rapid transfer of matter to the deep ocean. Deep Sea Res.,28, 495–505.Google Scholar
  4. Honjo, S. (1980): Material fluxes and modes of sedimentation in the mesopelagic and bathypelagic zones. J. Mar. Res.,38, 53–97.Google Scholar
  5. Honjo, S. (1982): Seasonality and interaction of biogenic and lithogenic particulate flux at Panama Basin. Science,218, 883–884.Google Scholar
  6. Horibe, Y. ed. (1970): Preliminary Report of the Hakuho Maru Cruise KH-68-4, 19 November 1968-3 March 1969. Ocean Research Inst., Univ. of Tokyo, 170 pp.Google Scholar
  7. Kawamura, A. and T. Ichikawa (1984): Distribution of diatoms in a small area in Indian sector of the Antarctic. Proc. VI Symp. Polar Biol. ed. by T. Hoshiai and M. Fukuchi, Mem. Natl. Inst. Polar Res., Spec. Issue,32, 25–37.Google Scholar
  8. Lisitzin, A.P. (1972): Sedimentation in the world ocean. ed. by K.S. Rodolfo, Soc. Econ. Paleontologists & Minerarogists, Spec. Publ. No.17, Tulsa, Okl., 218 pp.Google Scholar
  9. Maeda, M., Y. Watanabe, H. Aruga, M. Yamaguchi, N. Matsuura and D. Inagake (1984): Distribution of nutrients in the Antarctic Sea near the polar front continuously recorded with an autoanalyzer. Paper presented at the fall meeting of the Oceanogr. Soc. Japan, Oct., 1984, Kyoto.Google Scholar
  10. Murano, M. ed. in chief (1985): Biological investigations of marine Antarctic systems and stocks (SIBEX) by Umitaka Maru 1983–1984. Data from oceanographic observations. Trans. Tokyo Univ. Fish., in press.Google Scholar
  11. Nemoto, T. and M. Terasaki, ed. (1985): Preliminary Report of the Hakuho Maru Cruise, KH-83-4 (BIOMASS), Nov. 22, 1983–Feb. 24, 1984. Ocean Research Inst., Univ. of Tokyo, 85 pp.Google Scholar
  12. Noriki, S., K. Nakanishi, T. Fukawa, M. Uematsu, T. Uchida and S. Tsunogai (1980): Use of a sealed teflon vessel for the determination of chemical constituents of various marine samples. Bull. Facl. Fish. Hokkaido Univ.,31, 354–361.Google Scholar
  13. Noriki, S., K. Harada and S. Tsunogai (1985): Sediment trap experiment in the Antarctic Ocean. P. 161–170. In: Marine and Esturine Geochemistry, ed. by A.C. Sigleo and A. Hattori, Lewis Publ. Inc., Chelsea, MI.Google Scholar
  14. Redfield, A.C., B.H. Ketchum and F.A. Richards (1963): The influence of organisms on the composition of sea water. p. 21–77. In: The Sea, Vol, 2, ed, by M.N. Hill, Interscience, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Taylor, S.R. (1964): Abundance of chemical elements in the continental crust. Geochim, Cosmochim. Acta,28, 1273–1285.Google Scholar
  16. Tsunogai, S. (1979): Dissolved silica as the primary factor determining the composition of phytoplankton classes in the ocean. Bull. Facul. Fish. Hokkaido Univ.,30, 314–322.Google Scholar
  17. Tsunogai, S. and M. Minagawa (1978): Settling model for the removal of insoluble chemical elements in seawater. Geochem. J.,12, 47–56.Google Scholar
  18. Tsunogai, S. and Y. Watanabe (1983): Role of dissolved silicate in the occurrence of a phytoplankton bloom. J. Oceanogr. Soc. Japan,39, 231–239.Google Scholar
  19. Tsunogai, S., M. Uematsu, N. Tanaka, K. Harada, E. Tanoue and N. Handa (1980): A sediment trap experiment in Funka Bay, Japan; “Upward flux” of particulate matter in seawater. Mar. Chem.,9, 321–334.Google Scholar
  20. Tsunogai, S., M. Uematsu, S. Noriki, N. Tanaka and M. Yamada (1982): Sediment trap experiment in the northern North Pacific: Undulation of settling particles. Geochem., J.,16, 129–147.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Oceanographical Society of Japan 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shizuo Tsunogai
    • 1
  • Shinichiro Noriki
    • 1
  • Koh Harada
    • 1
  • Taro Kurosaki
    • 1
  • Yasunori Watanabe
    • 1
  • Masaru Maedaa
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of FisheriesHokkaido UniversityHakodate
  2. 2.Tokyo University of FisheriesTokyo

Personalised recommendations