Affleck, G., Allen, D. A., Tennen, H., McGrade, B. J., & Ratzan, S. (1985). Causal and control cognitions in parents' coping with chronically ill children.Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 3, 367–377.
Affleck, G., Tennen, H., & Croog, S. (1987). Causal attributions, perceived benefits, and morbidity after a heart attack: An 8 year study.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 29–35.
Affleck, G., Tennen, H., & Gershman, K. (1985). Cognitive adaptations to high-risk infants: The search for mastery, meaning, and protection from future harm.American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 89, 653–656.
Aldwin, C. M. (1994).Stress, coping, and development. New York: Guilford Press.
Andreasen, N. L., & Norris, A. S. (1972). Long-term adjustment and adaptation mechanisms in severely burned adults.Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 154, 352–362.
Andrykowski, M. A. (1992, August).Positive psychosocial adjustment among cancer survivors. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C.
Bijur, P.E., Wallston, K. A., Smith, C. A., Lifrak, S., & Friedman, S. A. (1993, August). Gender differences in turning to religion for coping. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Birren, J. E., & Fisher, L. M. (1990). The elements of wisdom: Overview and integration. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.),Wisdom: Its nature, origins, and development (pp. 317–332). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Burt, M. R., & Katz, B. L. (1987). Dimensions of recovery from rape: Focus on growth outcomes.Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2, 57–81.
Calhoun, L. G., & Tedeschi, R. G. (1989–90). Positive aspects of critical life problems: Recollections of grief.Omega, 20, 265–272.
Carver, C. S., Pozo, C, Harris, S. D., Noriega, V., Scheier, M. F., Robinson, D. S., Ketcham, A. S., Moffat, Jr., F. L., & Clark, K. C. (1993). How coping mediates the effect of optimism on distress: A study of women with early stage breast cancer.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 375–390.
Collins, R. L., Taylor, S. E., & Skokan, L. A. (1990). A better world or a shattered vision? Changes in life perspectives following victimization.Social Cognition, 8, 263–285.
Cooley, W. W., & Lohnes, P. R. (1971).Multivariate data analysis. New York: Wiley.
Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1985).The NEO Personality Inventory Manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Crowne, D. P., & Marlowe, D. (1960). A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology.Journal of Consulting Psychology, 24, 349–354.
Dakof, G. A., & Taylor, S. E. (1990). Victims' perceptions of social support: What is helpful to whom?Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 80–89.
Fiske, S., & Taylor, S. E. (1991).Social cognition (2nd Ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Garmezy, N. (1994). Reflections and commentary on risk, resilience, and development. In R. J. Haggerty, L. R. Sherrod, N. Garmezy, & M. Rutter (Eds.),Stress, risk and resilience in children and adolescents. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Goodhart, D. E. (1985). Some psychological effects associated with positive and negative thinking about stressful event outcomes: Was Pollyanna right?Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 216–232.
Greenwald, A. G. (1980). The totalitarian ego: Fabrication and revision of personal history.American Psychologist, 35, 603–618.
Janoff-Bulman, R. (1992).Shattered assumptions. New York: The Free Press.
Joseph, S., Williams, R., & Yule, W. (1993). Changes in outlook following disaster: The preliminary development of a measure to assess positive and negative responses.Journal of Traumatic Stress, 6, 271–279.
Kahana, B. (1992). Late-life adaptation in the aftermath of extreme stress. In M. Wykel, E. Kahana, & J. Kowal (Eds.),Stress and health among the elderly (pp. 5–34). New York: Springer.
Kobasa, S. C. (1979). Stressful life events, personality, and health: An inquiry into hardiness.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1–11.
Lehman, D. R., Davis, C. G., Delongis, A., Wortman, C., Bluck, S., Mandel, D. R., & Ellard, J. H. (1993). Positive and negative life changes following bereavement and their relations to adjustment.Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 12, 90–112.
Malinak, D. P., Hoyt, M. F., & Patterson, V. (1979). Adults' reactions to the death of a parent.American Journal of Psychiatry, 136, 1152–1156.
Martin, L. L., Tesser, A., & McIntosh, W. D. (1993). Wanting but not having: The effects of unattained goals on thoughts and feelings. In D. M. Wegner & J. W. Pennebaker (Eds.),Handbook of mental control (pp. 552–572). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
McCrae, R. R. (1992). The five-factor model: Issues and applications [Special issue].Journal of Personality, 60.
McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T., Jr., (1986). Personality, coping, and coping effectiveness in an adult sample.Journal of Personality, 385–405.
McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T., Jr., (1993). Psychological resilience among widowed men and women: A 10-year follow-up of a national sample. In M. S. Stroebe, W. Stroebe, & R. O. Hansson (Eds.),Handbook of bereavement: Theory, research, and intervention (pp. 196–207). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Norris, F. H. (1990). Screening for traumatic stress: A scale for use in the general population.Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 20, 1704–1718.
Pargament, K. I., Royster, B. J. T., Albert, M., Crowe, P., Cullman, E. P., Holley, R., Schaefer, D., Sytniak, M., & Wood, M. (1990, August).A qualitative approach to the study of religion and coping: Four tentative conclusions. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Boston, MA.
Park, C. L., Cohen, L. H., & Murch, R. L. (in press). Assessment and prediction of stress-related growth.Journal of Personality.
Pressman, P., Lyons, J. S., Larson, D. B., & Strain, J. J. (1990). Religious belief, depression, and ambulation status in elderly women with broken hips.American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 758–760.
Rothbaum, F., Weisz, J. R., & Snyder, S. S. (1982). Changing the world and changing the self: A two-process model of perceived control.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 5–37.
Rutter, M. (1987). Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms.American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 57, 316–331.
Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies.Health Psychology, 4, 219–247.
Scheier, M. F., Weintraub, J. K., & Carver, C. S. (1986). Coping with stress: Divergent strategies of optimists and pessimists.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1257–1264.
Schwartzberg, S. S. (1994). Vitality and growth in HIV-infected gay men.Social Science and Medicine, 38, 593–602.
Schwartzberg, S. S., & Janoff-Bulman, R. (1991). Grief and the search for meaning: Exploring the assumptive worlds of bereaved college students.Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 10, 270–288.
Silver, R. L., Boon, C., & Stones, M. (1983). Searching for meaning in misfortune: Making sense of incest.Journal of Social Issues, 39, 81–102.
Sledge, W. H., Boydstun, J. A., & Rabe, A. J. (1980). Self-concept changes related to war captivity.Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 430–443.
Smith, T. W., Houston, B. K., & Stucky, R. J. (1982). Positive evaluation as a strategy for coping with stress.Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 1, 193–208.
Smith, T. W., Pope, M. K., Rhodewalt, F., & Poulton, J. L. (1989). Optimism, neuroticism, coping, and symptom reports: An alternative interpretation of the Life Orientation Test.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 640–648.
Stutman, S., & Baruch, R. (1992, August). A model for the process of fostering resilience. In H. Tomes (Chair),The process of fostering resilience: Roles for psychologists and the media. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
Stutts, W., Calhoun, L. G., Tedeschi, R. G., & Cann, A. (1994, August). Religion, assumptive worlds, and the aftermath of trauma: What changes? Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles.
Taylor, S. E. (1983). Adjustment to threatening events.: A theory of cognitive adaptation.American Psychologist, 38, 1161–1173.
Taylor, S. E., Lichtman, R. R., & Wood, J. V. (1984). Attributions, beliefs in control, and adjustment to breast cancer.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 489–502.
Taylor, S. E., & Brown, J. D. (1988). Illusion and well-being: A social psychological perspective on mental health.Psychological Bulletin, 103, 193–210.
Tedeschi, R. G., & Calhoun, L.G. (1995).Trauma and transformation: Growing in the aftermath of suffering. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Thomas, L. E., DiGiulio, R. C., & Sheehan, N. W. (1991). Identifying loss and psychological crisis in widowhood.International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 26, 279–295.
Thompson, S. C. (1985). Finding positive meaning in a stressful event and coping.Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 6, 279–295.
Veronen, L. J., & Kilpatrick, D. G. (1983). Rape: A precursor of change. In E. J. Callahan & K. A. McCluskey (Eds.),Life-span developmental psychology: Nonnormative life events (pp. 167–191). New York: Academic Press.
Vrana, S., & Lauterbach, D. (1994). Prevalence of traumatic events and posttraumatic psychological symptoms in a nonclinical sample of college students.Journal of Traumatic Stress, 7, 289–302.