U(1) gauge theory on a torus
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U(1) gauge theory with the Villain action on a cubic lattice approximation of three- and four-dimensional torus is considered. As the lattice spacing approaches zero, provided the coupling constant correspondingly approaches zero, the naturally chosen correlation functions converge to the correlation functions of theR-gauge electrodynamics on three- and four-dimensional torus. When the torus radius tends to infinity these correlation functions converge to the correlation functions of theR-gauge Euclidean electrodynamics.
KeywordsNeural Network Statistical Physic Correlation Function Complex System Gauge Theory
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