The Muridae glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase family
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Although only one gene is known to be functional, numerous glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) related sequences are scattered throughoutMus musculus andRattus rattus genomes. In this report we show that: (1) GAPDH pseudogenes are repeated to comparable extents, at least 400 copies, in 12 other Muridae species; (2) the complete, or nearly so, sequence of GAPDH messenger RNA is amplified, and a high proportion, if not all of these copies, are intronless; (3) GAPDH pseudogenes are preferentially located in heavily methylated and DNAse I-insensitive regions of chromatin; and (4) the presence of atypical GAPDH-related mRNAs in different cellular contexts raises the possibility that more than one GAPDH gene is transcribed.
Key wordsPseudogenes Amplification Retroposition Chromatin structure DNA methylation Transcription RNA
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