Annals of Operations Research

, Volume 18, Issue 1, pp 303–322 | Cite as

The use of simulation in validating a multiobjective EMS location model

  • Miriam Heller
  • Jared L. Cohon
  • Charles S. Revelle
Section V Planning Models And Applications


A location model is proposed for emergency medical service systems to solve the multiobjective location problem of minimizing mean response time and balancing facility workload. Location solutions generated from the model are tested with simulation and are shown to be quite realistic with regard to mean response time prediction and facility allocation. This efficiency is determined to be directly attributable to workload constraints.


Response Time Medical Service Location Problem Service System Location Model 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    K.F. Siler, Level-load retrieval time: a new criterion for EMS facility sites, Health Serv. Res. 12 (1977) 416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    J.A. Fitzsimmons, A methodology for emergency ambulance deployment, Mgmt. Sci. 19 (1973) 627.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    P.M. Dearing and J.P. Jarvis, A location model with queueing constraints, Computers and Oper. Res. 5 (1978) 273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    J.R. Weaver and R.L. Church, A median location model with nonclosest facility service, Transp. Sci. 19 (1985) 59.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    D.J. Eaton, H.ML. Sánchez, U., R.R. Lantigua and J. Morgan, Determining ambulance deployment in Santo Domingo, Domincan Republic, J. Oper. Res. Soc. 37 (1986) 113.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    C. Toregas, R. Swain, C. ReVelle and L. Berman, The location of emergency service facilities, Oper. Res. 19 (1971) 1363.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    R.L. Church and C.S. ReVelle, The maximal covering location problem, Papers of the Reg. Sci. Assoc. 32 (1974) 101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    D.J. Eaton, M.S. Daskin, D. Simmons, B. Bulloch and G. Jansma, Determining emergency medical vehicle deployment in Austin, Texas, Interfaces 15 (1985) 96.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    S.L. Haikimi, Optimum location of switching centers and absolute centers and medians of a graph, Oper. Res. 12 (1964) 450.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    G. Moore and C.S. ReVelle, The hierarchical service location problem, Mgmt. Sci. 28 (1982) 775.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    R.L. Church and D.J. Eaton, Hierarchical facility location utilizing covering objectives, in:Spatial Analysis and Location Allocation Models, eds. A. Ghosh and G. Rushton (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1986).Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    M.S. Daskin and E.H. Stern, A hierarchical objective set covering model for emergency medical service vehicle deployment, Transp. Sci. 15 (1981) 137.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    D. Schilling, Multiobjective and temporal considerations in public facility location, Ph.D. Dissertation, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md., 1976.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    K. Hogan and C.S. ReVelle, Concepts and applications of backup coverage, Mgmt. Sci. 32 (1986) 1434.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    R.L. Church and K.L. Roberts, Generalized coverage models and public facility location, presented at the 29th Annual N. Amer. Meetings of the Regional Science Association, Pittsburgh, 1982.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    G.T. Ross and R.M. Soland, Modeling facility location problems as generalized assignment problems, Mgmt. Sci. 24 (1977) 346.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    C.D. Swoveland, D. Uyeno, I. Vertinsky and R. Vickson, Ambulance location: a probabilistic enumeration approach, Mgmt. Sci. 20 (1973) 686.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    J.R. Weaver, Context-free vector assignment location problems, Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, 1979.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    G.N. Berlin and J.C. Liebman, Mathematical analysis of emergency location, Socio-Economic Planning Sciences 8 (1974) 323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    R. Volz, Optimal ambulance location in semi-rural areas, Transp. Sci. 5 (1971) 193.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    J. Levy, An extended theorem for location on a network, Operational Research Quarterly 18 (1967).Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    L.M. Dalberto, Practical solution approaches to the capacitated plant location problem, presented at the Joint National Meeting TIMS/ORSA, Wash., D.C., 1980.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    M. Balinski, Integer programming: methods, uses, computation, Mgmt. Sci. 12 (1965) 253.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    P.S. Davis and T.L. Ray, A branch-and-bound algorithm for the capacitated facilities location problem, Naval Research Logistics Quarterly 16 (1969) 331.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    J.L. Cohon,Multiobjective Programming and Planning (Academic Press, New York, 1978).Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    K.E. Rosing, C.S. ReVelle and H. Rosing-Vogelaar, Thep-median and its linear programming relaxation: an approach to large problems, J. Oper. Res. Soc. 30 (1979) 815.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    A.W. Neebe, A branch and bound algorithm for thep-median transportation problem, J. Oper. Res. Soc. 29 (1978) 989.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    M. Heller, Location optimization and simulation for the analysis of emergency medical service systems, Ph.D. Dissertation, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md., 1985.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© J.C. Baltzer A.G. Scientific Publishing Company 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miriam Heller
    • 1
  • Jared L. Cohon
    • 2
  • Charles S. Revelle
    • 2
  1. 1.Citicorp Credit ServicesUSA
  2. 2.Department of Geography and Environmental EngineeringThe Johns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations