Window materials for high power gyrotron

  • Mohammed Nurul Afsar
  • Hua Chi


The room temperature application of sapphire as window material at higher frequencies is not feasible since its absorption coefficient increases almost linearly with increasing frequency in the millimeter wavelength region. At cryogenic temperature the absorption coefficient value decreases only by a few factors (factor of 2 to 3) in the 90 – 200 GHz region. The earlier reported temperature squared dependence (decrease) in the absorption coefficient or the loss tangent value is totally absent in our broad band continuous wave data we are reporting here (at 6.5 K, 35K, 77K and 300K) and one we reported at conferences earlier. Our results are verified by another technique. We utilize our precision millimeter wave dispersive Fourier transform spectroscopic techniques at room temperature and at cryogenic temperatures The extra high resistivity single crystal compensated silicon is no doubt the lowest loss material available at room temperature in the entire millimeter wavelength region At higher millimeter wave frequencies an extra high resistivity silicon window or an window made with extra high resistivity silicon coated with diamond film would certainly make a better candidate in the future. A single free standing synthetic diamond window seems to have higher absorption coefficient values at millimeter wavelength region at this time although it is claimed that it possesses good mechanical strength and higher thermal conductivity characteristics. It certainly does not rule out the use of diamond film on a single crystal high resistivity silicon to improve its mechanical strength and thermal conductivity


Thermal Conductivity Sapphire Wavelength Region Diamond Film Cryogenic Temperature 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammed Nurul Afsar
    • 1
  • Hua Chi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringTufts UniversityMedford

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