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Die Kulturpflanze

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 277–326 | Cite as

Proteine und Proteinbiosynthese in Samen vonVicia faba L.

  • Klaus Müntz
  • Christian Horstmann
  • Günter Scholz
Originalarbeiten

Zusammenfassung

Der gegenwärtige Stand der Untersuchungen über die Samenproteine der Ackerbohne und ihre Biosynthese wird zusammenfassend dargestellt.

Die Ackerbohne (Vicia faba) gehört zu den ältesten Kulturpflanzen. Sie wird gegenwärtig in fast allen Teilen der Welt angebaut und ist in vielen Ländern ökonomisch von erheblicher Bedeutung. In der DDR liegt sie hinsichtlich ihres Korn- und Proteinertrages je Flächeneinheit an der Spitze aller Körnerleguminosen. Ihr Nährwert wird allerdings durch einen Mangel an schwefelhaltigen, essentiellen Aminosäuren, vor allem an Methionin, beeinträchtigt.

Albumine und Globuline sind die vorherrschenden Proteinformen. Die Albumine repräsentieren etwa 10% des Gesamt-Stickstoffs reifer Samen. Sie stellen vorwiegend Enzymproteine dar und können mit Hilfe der Gelfiltration und anschließender Diskelektrophorese in mindestens 27 Fraktionen zerlegt werden. Das Muster der Albuminbanden unterliegt bestimmten Veränderungen während der Samenentwicklung und zeigt innerhalb der GattungVicia artspezifische Unterschiede, so daß es gemeinsam mit dem der Globulinbanden chemotaxonomisch ausgewertet werden kann. Die zur Albuminfraktion zählenden Trypsininhibitoren sind in 2,5%iger Trichloressigsäure lösliche Proteine von niederem Molekulargewicht. Die ebenfalls zu den Albuminen gehörenden Phytohaemagglutinine (Lectine) lassen sich durch Adsorption an Dextrangele und nachfolgende Elution mit Zuckerlösungen in reiner Form darstellen. Sie haben in neuerer Zeit wegen ihrer mitogenetischen Aktivität gegenüber Lymphocyten besonderes Interesse gefunden.

Die Globuline machen etwa 60% des Gesamt-Stickstoffs reifer Samen aus und stellen die eigentlichen Reserveproteine dar. Sie bestehen aus den Komponenten Vicilin und Legumin, die im Verhältnis von ca. 1:2,5 vorliegen und auf Grund ihrer unterschiedlichen isoelektrischen Punkte getrennt werden können. Wahrscheinlich ist das Vicilin aus vier, das Legumin aus drei Untereinheiten zusammengesetzt. Die Globuline sind ausschließlich in den Aleuronkörnern (protein bodies) der Kotyledonen lokalisiert, die außerdem noch etwa 12% Albumine enthalten. Ihrem serologischen Verhalten und ihrer Aminosäurezusammensetzung nach bestehen zwischen den Globulinen taxonomisch verwandter Leguminosen große Ähnlichkeiten.

Die Biosynthese der Globuline erfolgt wahrscheinlich außerhalb der Aleuronkörner an cytoplasmatischen Ribosomen, die mit dem endoplasmatischen Reticulum assoziiert sind. Teilschritte sind an Präparaten aus reifendem Samen vonV. faba auf molekularer Ebene nachgewiesen worden. Die Globulinsynthese setzt erst etwa 35 Tage nach der Blüte ein und ist neben der Stärkeakkumulation für etwa 3 Wochen der vorherrschende Syntheseprozeß. Der Wechsel der physiologischen Aktivität des Samens von der Wachstumsphase zur Phase der Globulinsynthese setzt einen Schaltmechanismus voraus, für den verschiedene Angriffspunkte diskutiert werden.

Proteins and protein synthesis in seeds ofVicia faba L.

Summary

A review is given on contemporary knowledge of seed proteins and protein synthesis in the broad bean,Vicia faba L.

The broad bean represents one of our oldest crop plants. It is cultivated in almost all parts of the world, being of considerable economical importance in many countries. In the German Democratic Republic it produces highest yields per area among all grain pulses with respect to the amount of seeds and proteins harvested. Its nutritive value is however restricted by lack of some essential sulphur containing amino acids, mainly of methionine.

Within broad bean seeds albumins and globulins are predominating. Albumins represent about 10% of the total nitrogen from mature seeds, most of them are enzymes. They are separated by gel filtration and disk electrophoresis into at least 27 fractions. The pattern of albumin bands on polyacrylamide gels is subject to distinct changes during seed development, presenting species specific differences within the genusVicia, which are taxonomic relevant together with the pattern of globulin distribution. Part of the albumin fraction is constituted by trypsin inhibitors and phytohemagglutinins. Trypsin inhibitors are proteins of low molecular weight, soluble in 2.5% trichloroacetic acid. Phytohemagglutinins (lectins) are quite easily prepared in pure condition by absorption on dextran gels and elution with sugar solution. Recently they have attracted considerable interest owing to their mitogenetic activity towards lymphocytes.

Essentially, globulins are the reserve proteins ofVicia faba seeds, representing about 60% of their total nitrogen. They consist of vicilin and legumin with a ratio of about 1:2.5. Methods for separating globulins are based on differences of their respective isoelectric points. Vicilin and legumin are probably composed of four and three subunits, respectively. Globulins are exclusively located within the protein bodies of the cotyledons together with about 12% albumins. Globulins of closely related legumes are quite similar as demonstrated by serological reactions and amino acid composition.

Biosynthesis of globulins probably occurs outside the protein bodies on cytoplasmic ribosomes, which are associated with the endoplasmatic reticulum. A number of biosynthetic reactions has been demonstrated with preparations from maturing broad bean seedsin vitro on a molecular level. Globulin synthesis starts about 35 days after flowering. Besides starch synthesis it is the predominating synthetic process for about three weeks. The change of physiological activity within a seed from the growth phase to the phase of globulin synthesis involves a trigger system, for which different mechanisms are discussed.

Протеины и их биосинтез в семенахVicia faba L.

Краткое содержание

В работе резюмируется современное состояние исследований протеинов семян конских бобов и их биосинтеза.

Конские бобы (Vicia faba) принадлежат к древнейшим культурным растениям. В настоящее время их возделывают почи во всех частях света и их культура имеет во многих странах важное экономическое значение. В ГДР конские бобы занимают первое место среди зерновых бобовых по урожайности зерна и протеинов на единицу поверхности. Их питательная ценность, однако, снижается благодаря недостатку серусодержащих незаменимых аминокислот, главным образом метионина.

Преобладающими формами протеинов являются альбумины и глобулины. Альбумины представляют около 10% общего количества азота зрелых семян. Это, преимущественно, энзимные протеины, которые могут быть разделены при помощи фильтрации геля и последующего электрофореза в полиакриламидном геле по меньшей мере на 27 фракций. Спектр альбуминовых полос подвержен определенным изменениям в течение периода развития семян и обнаруживает внутри родаVicia видовые различия; таким образом он может быть, вместе со спектром глобулиновых полос, использован для хемотаксономических целей. Ингибиторы трипсина, относящиеся к фракции альбуминов, в 2,5%-ной трихлоруксусной кислоте являются растворимыми протеинами с низким молекулярным весом. Фитогемоагглютинины (лектины), также относящиеся к альбуминам, можно получить в чистом виде при помощи адсорбции декстрановыми гелями и последующим элюированием растворами сахаров. В последнее время ими заинтересовались в связи с их митогенетической активностью по отношению к лимфоцитам.

Глобулины составляют около 60% общего количества азота зрелых семян и являются главными запасными протеинами. Их компоненты, вицилин и легумин, находящиеся в соотношении 1 : 2,5, имеют различные изоэлектрические точки и, благодаря этому, могут быть разделены. Вероятно, вицилин состоит из четырех, легумин — из трех субкомпонентов. Глобулины локализированы только в алейроновых зернах (протеиновых тельцах) семедолей, которые, кроме того содержат около 12% альбуминов. Между глобулинами таксономически близких бобовых, судя по их серологическому поведению и аминокислотному составу, существует большое сходство.

Биосинтез глобулинов протекает, вероятно, вне алейроновых зерен, на рибозомах цитоплазмы, которые ассоциированы с сеточкой эндоплазмы. На препаратах из зрелых семян были зарегистрированы отдельные этапы биосинтеза на молекулярном уровне. Синтез глобулинов начинается приблизительно на 35 день после цветения и с этого времени, наряду с накоплением крахмала, остается в течение трех недель преобладающим процессом синтеза. Изменение физиологической активности семени от фазы роста к фазе синтеза глобулинов позволяет предположить существование какого-то включающего механизма, возможные точки приложения которого обсуждаются в конце работы.

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© Akademie-Verlag GmbH 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • Klaus Müntz
  • Christian Horstmann
  • Günter Scholz

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