, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 169–181 | Cite as

The norm-breaking function of literature

  • Rudolf E. Kuenzli


Aesthetic Beauty Garde Work Butler Group Phonetic Function Specific Cultural System 
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  1. 1.
    Pierre Cabanne and Pierre Restany,L'avant-garde au XXe siècle (Paris: André Balland, 1969), p. 7.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Eugène Ionesco,Notes and Counter-Notes, transl. Donald Watson (London: J. Calder, 1964), pp. 40–41; quoted in Matei Calinescu,Faces of Modernity: Avant-Garde, Decadence, Kitsch (Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1977), p. 119.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Christopher Butler,After the Wake: An Essay on the Contemporary Avant-Garde (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    John Cage,Silence (Middletown: Wesleyan UP, 1961), pp. 53, 59.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Peter Bürger,Theorie der Avantgarde (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1974), p. 9.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Marcel Duchamp made this statement in a letter to Hans Richter, which is dated November 10, 1962. Richter quotes this passage in hisDada: Art and Anti-Art (London: Thames and Hudson, 1966), pp. 207–8.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Leon Trotsky,Literature and Revolution (New York: International Publishers, 1925), p. 183.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    My brief description of the reading process in regard to reading avant-garde works is indebted to Wolfgang Iser'sThe Act of Reading (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins UP, 1978).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    See Peter Bürger,Theorie der Avantgarde, (, p. 108.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    See Eva Cockcroft, “Abstract Expressionism, Weapon of the Cold War”,Artforum 12, nos 39–41 (June 1974), pp. 39–42.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Georg Lukács,The Destruction of Reason, transl. Peter Palmer (Atlantic Highlands, N. J.: Humanities Press, 1981).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hans Arp, “Dada was not a Farce”, inThe Dada Painters and Poets, ed. Robert Motherwell (New York: Wittenborn, 1951), p. 22.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Raoul Hausmann,Am Anfang war Dada, ed. Karl Riha and Günter Kämpf (Giessen: Anabas, 1972), p. 67. See my analysis of this poem in “The Semiotics of Dada Poetry”, inDada Spectrum: The Dialectics of Revolt, ed. Stephen C. Foster and Rudolf E. Kuenzli (Madison: Coda Press, 1979), pp. 51–70.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    “Zur Geschichte des Lautgedichtes”, inAm Anfang war Dada, p. 43.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    “Peinture nouvelle et photomontage”, in Raoul Hausmann'sCourrier Dada (Paris: Le terrain vague, 1958), p. 97. See also Hausmann's article entitled “Zur Weltrevolution”, inDie Erde 1, no. 12 (1919), p. 368.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    “Dada empört sich regt sich und stirbt in Berlin”, inAm Anfang war Dada, p. 19.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. J. Peter Froehlich, “Reaktionen des Publikums auf Vorführungen nach abstrakten Vorlagen”, inSinn aus Unsinn: Dada International, ed. Wolfgang Paulsen (Bern: Francke, 1982), pp. 15–28.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    “Kurt Schwitters wird Merz”, inAm Amfang war Dada, p. 68.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bertolt Brecht,Gesammelte Werke, 20 vol. (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1967), 15, p. 364.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    See ——, 16, p. 612.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    See Brecht's “Mutter Courage, in zweifacher Art dargestellt”, inGesammelte Werke, 16, pp. 895–96.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    The Good Woman of Setzuan, transl. Eric Bentley (New York: Grove Press, 1956), p. 141.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rudolf E. Kuenzli

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