Minerals and the Environment

, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 32–38 | Cite as

Management options for rehabilitation and enhancement of surface-mined ecosystems

  • John CairnsJr


There are four basic management options for surface-mined land: (a)restoration to original condition; (b)rehabilitation of some desirable characteristics; (c) development ofalternative ecosystems that may be quite unlike the original but may be desirable for a variety of reasons; (d)neglect ornatural reclamation when evidence suggests that unaided natural processes will produce better results than human intervention. Checklists are provided so that essential information will be available in selecting the most suitable option.


Geochemistry Natural Process Management Option Original Condition Human Intervention 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Cairns, J., Jr., ‘Ecological considerations in reclaiming surface mined lands’,Minerals Environ., 1, 83–9 (1979).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cairns, J., Jr., and Dickson, K. L., ‘Field and laboratory protocols for evaluating the effects of chemical substances on aquatic life’,J. Test. Eval. 6(2), 81–90 (1978).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dickson, K. L., Cairns, J., Jr., and Maki, A. (Editors),Analyzing the Hazard Evaluation Process, 159 pp, American Fisheries Society, Washington DC (1979).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rorslett, B., ‘Some ecological implications of freshwater system's restoration’, in Holdgate, M. W., and Woodman, M. J. (Editors),The Breakdown and Restoration of Ecosystems, 339–47, Plenum Press, London (1978). AND Björk, S., ‘Översikt over sjorestaureringsproblematikken’,Förening för Vattenkygien, Värmøte maj (1975).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Magnuson, J. J., Regier, H. A., Christie, W. J., and Sonzongni, W. C., ‘To rehabilitate and restore Great Lakes ecostystems’, in Cairns, J., Jr. (Editor),The Recovery Process in Damaged Ecosystems, 95–112, Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan (1980).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Vogl, R. J., ‘The ecological factors that produce perturbation-dependent ecosystems’, in Cairns, J., Jr. (Editor),op. cit., 63–94.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    McIntosh, R. P., ‘The relationship between succession and the recovery process in ecosystems’, in Cairns, J., Jr. (Editor),op. cit., 11–62.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rickard, W. H., and Cushing, C. E., ‘Recovery of stream-side woody vegetation after exclusion of livestock grazing’,J. Range Manage., 35(3), 360–61 (1982).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bradshaw, A. J., and Chadwick, M. J.,The Restoration of Land, 317 pp, University of California Press, Berkeley (1980).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gameson, A. L. H., and Wheeler, A., ‘Restoration and recovery of the Thames Estuary’, in Cairns, J., Jr, Dickson, K. L., and Herricks, E. E. (Editors),Recovery and Restoration of Damaged Ecosystems, 72–101, University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville (1977).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Edmondson, W. T., ‘Recovery of Lake Washington from eutophication’, in Cairns, J., Jr, Dickson, K. L., and Herricks, E. E. (Editors),op. cit., 102–9.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Whitmore, R. C., ‘Managing claimed surface mines in West Virginia to promote nongame birds’, in Samuel, E. E., Stauffer, J. R., Hocutt, C. H., and Mason, W. T., Jr (Editors),Surface Mining and Fish/Wildlife Needs in the Eastern United States, 381–6, Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS/OBS-78/81), US Department of the Interior, Washington DC (1978).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Doyle, W. S., ‘Surface mined land reclamation in Germany’, in Rowe, J. E. (Editor),Coal Surface Mining: Impacts of Reclamation, 369–90, Westview press, Boulder, Colorado (1979).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    National Research Council,Surface Mining: Soil, Coal, and Society, 233pp, National Academy Press, Washington DC (1981).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Peltz, L. R., and Maughan, O. E., ‘Analysis of fish populations and selected physical and chemical parameters of five strip mine ponds in Wise County, Virginia with implications’, in Samuel, D. E., Stauffer, J. R., Hocutt, C. H., and Mason, W. T., Jr (Editors),op. cit, 171–6.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Carnes, R. A.,Nature and use of coal ash from utilities, News of Environmental Research in Cincinatti, US Environmental Protection Agency, June 30, 1975, Cincinatti, Ohio (1975).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brackett, C. E., ‘Production and utilization of ash in the United States’, inBureau of Mines Information Circular 8488, 11–16, US Department of the Interior, Washington DC (1970).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rohrman, F. A., ‘Analyzing the effect of fly ash on water pollution’,Power, 155, 76–7 (1971).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nawrot, J. R., Woolf, A., and Klimstra, W. D.,A Guide for Enchancement of Fish and Wildlife on Abandoned Mine Lands in the Eastern United States, 101 pp, FWS/OBS-80/67, Superintendent of Documents, Washington DC (1982).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cairns, J., Jr, and Cherry, D. S., ‘A site-specific field and laboratory evaluation of coal fired power plant discharges’, inProceedings of the International Conference on Coal-fired Power Plants and the Aquatic Environment, Pergamon Press, London (1982).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chu, Tine-Yung, Ruane, R. J., and Krenkel, P. A., ‘Characterization and reuse of ash pond effluents in coal-fired power plants’,J. Water Pollut. Control Fed., Nov., 2494–2508 (1978).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Loehr, R. C. (Editor),Land as a Waste Management Alternative, Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan (1977).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Geller, E. S., Winett, R. A., and Everett, P. B.,Preserving the Environment: New strategies for Behavior Change, 338 pp, Pergamon Press, New York (1982).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science and Technology Letters 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • John CairnsJr
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State University BlacksburgVirginiaUSA

Personalised recommendations