Cloning and heterologous expression of the violacein biosynthesis gene cluster fromChromobacterium violaceum


The entire biosynthetic pathway for the synthesis of the antibiotic pigment violacein is encoded on a 14.5 kilobase (kb) fragment of theChromobacterium violaceum genome. When cloned intoEscherichia coli, pigment synthesis is strongly expressed, as it is in a wide range of Gram-negative bacteria. Transposon mutagenesis resulted in a number of different phenotypes that correlated with transposon insertion sites in the gene cluster.

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Correspondence to John M. Pemberton.

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Pemberton, J.M., Vincent, K.M. & Penfold, R.J. Cloning and heterologous expression of the violacein biosynthesis gene cluster fromChromobacterium violaceum . Current Microbiology 22, 355–358 (1991).

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  • Gene Cluster
  • Biosynthetic Pathway
  • Insertion Site
  • Heterologous Expression
  • Biosynthesis Gene