Optical and Quantum Electronics

, Volume 22, Supplement 1, pp S167–S198 | Cite as

Optical characterization of tunable solid-state laser gain media

  • B. Henderson
  • M. Yamaga
  • K. P. Donnell


The transition metal ions are optical centres that promise tunable laser operation at room temperature over much of the visible and near-infrared regions. This review presents the essential characteristics used in optical assessment of possible laser-active solids and some of the theory required to understand the experimental results. Also presented is a survey of the main features of the optical absorption-emission cycle, luminescence decay profiles, optical bandshapes and excited-state absorption for Ti3+, Cr3+ and Co2+ ions in (essentially) octahedral environments. Finally, materials characteristics (for example, radiative against non-radiative decay, excited-state absorption and disorder) that limit laser performance are discussed.


Laser Operation Gain Medium Tunable Laser Optical Characterization Optical Centre 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    T. H. MAIMAN,Nature 187 (1960) 493.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. L. SCHAWLOW and G. E. DEVLIN,Phys. Rev. Lett. 6 (1961) 96.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    L. F. JOHNSON, R. E. DIETZ and H. J. GUGGENHEIM, ibid.11 (1963) 318.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Idem, Appl. Phys. Lett. 5 (1964) 2.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    L. F. JOHNSON, H. J. GUGGENHEIM and R. A. THOMAS,Phys. Rev. 151 (1966) 179.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    B. FRITZ and U. MENKE,Solid St. Commun. 3 (1965) 61.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    B. HENDERSON and G. F. IMBUSCH, ‘Optical Properties of Inorganic Solids’ (Oxford University Press, London, 1989).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    S. T. LAI, B. H. T. CHAI, M. LONG, M. D. SHINN, J. A. CAIRD, J. E. MARION and P. R. STAVER, in ‘Tunable Solid State Lasers II, edited by A. B. Bugdor, L. Esterowitz and L. G. De Shazer (Springer Series in Optical Sciences)52 (1986) 145.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. H. BARTRAM and A. M. STONEHAM,Solid St. Commun. 17 (1975) 1593.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    C. J. BALLHAUSEN, Introduction of Ligand Field Theory' (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1962).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. SUGANO, Y. TANABE and H. HAMIMURA, ‘Multiplets of Transition Metal Ions in Crystals’ (Academic Press, New York, 1974).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    B. F. GACHTER and J. A. KONINGSTEIN,J. Chem. Phys. 60 (1974) 2003.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    R. MACFARLANE, J. Y. WONG and M. D. STURGE,Phys. Rev. 166 (1968) 250.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. C. WALLING,Laser Focus 18 (1982) 45.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    G. HUBER and K. PETERMAN, 1985 in ‘Tunable Solid State Lasers I’, edited by P. Hammerling, A. B. Bugdor and A. Pinto (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985) p. 11. and references therein.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    E. V. ZHARIKOV, V. V. OSIKO, A. M. PROKHOROV and I. A. SCHERBAKOV,Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR 48 (1984) 1330.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. YAMAGA, A. MARSHALL, K. P. O'DONNELL, B. HENDERSON and Y. MIYAZAKI,J. Luminescence 39 (1988) 335.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    B. HENDERSON, K. P. O'DONNELL, M. YAMAGA, A. MARSHALL and B. COCKAYNE,Solid State Phys. 21 (1988) 6187.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    B. STRUVE and G. HUBER,Appl. Phys. B30 (1983) 117.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. MARSHALL, M. YAMAGA, K. P. O'DONNELL and B. HENDERSON,Appl. Phys. A in press.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    S. M. HEALY, C. J. DONNELLY, T. J. GLYNN, G. F. IMBUSCH and G. P. MORGAN,J. Luminescence 44 (1989) 65.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    A. MONTEIL, G. GARAPON and G. BOULON,Proc. Electrochem. Soc. 88 (24) (1988) 72.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    M. YAMAGA, B. HENDERSON and K. P. O'DONNELL,J. Phys. Condensed Matter. Phys. 1 (1989) 9175.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. YAMAGA, B. HENDERSON, K. P. O'DONNELL, C. T. COWAN and A. MARSHALL,Appl Phys. B in press.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    C. J. DONNELLY, S. M. HEALY, T. J. GLYNN, G. F. IMBUSCH and G. P. MORGAN,J. Luminescence 46 (1990) 1.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    S. A. PAYNE, L. L. CHASE and G. D. WILKE,J. Luminescence 44 (1989) 167.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. A. CAIRD, S. A. PAYNE, P. R. STAVER, A. J. RAMPONE, L. L. CHASE and W. F. KRUPKE,IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24 (1988) 1077.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    W. KOLBE, K. PETERMANN and G. HUBER, ibid.QE-21 (1985) 1596.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    P. GIRES and J. MAYER,J. de Phys. (Paris) 22 (1962) 832.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    T. KUSHIDA,IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2 (1966) 524.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    W. M. FAIRBAIRN, G. K. KLAUMINZER and A. L. SCHAWLOW,Phys. Rev. B11 (1976) 60.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    M. L. SHAND and J. C. WALLING,IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18 (1982) 1152. (See alsoJ. Appl. Phys. 52 (1981) 953.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    L. J. ANDREWS, S. M. HITELMAN, M. KOKTA and D. GABBE,J. Chem. Phys. 84 (1986) 5229. (See also L. J. ANDREWS, in ‘Tunable Solid State Lasers II’ edited by A. B. Budgor, L. Esterowitz and L. G. De Shazer (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986) p. 44.)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    R. G. PAPPALARDO, D. L. WOOD and R. C. LINARES,J. Chem. Phys. 35 (1961) 1460, 2041.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    V. PETRICEVIC, S. K. GAYEN and R. R. ALFANO,Appl. Opt. 28 (1989) 1610. (See alsoOpt. Lett. 14 (1989) 612.)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    S. M. JACOBSEN, W. E. SMITH, C. REBER and H. U. GUDEL,J. Chem. Phys. 84 (1986) 5205.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    P. F. MOULTON,J. Opt. Soc. Am. B3 (1986) 125. (See alsoCLEO Techn. Dig. WA2 (1984) 77.)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    M. R. KOKTA, in ‘Tunable Solid State Lasers II’, edited by A. B. Budgor, L. Esterowitz and L. G. De Shazer (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986) p. 89.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    R. E. FAHEY, A. J. STRAUSS, A. SANCHEZ and R. L. AGGARWAL,ibid., ‘ p. 82.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    W. R. RAPOPORT and C. P. KHATTAK,ibid., ‘ p. 212.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    P. ALBERS, E. STARK and G. HUBER,J. Opt. Soc. Am. B3 (1986) 134.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    J. KVAPIL, M. KOSELJA, J. KUAPIL, B. PARNER, V. SKODA, J. KUBELKA, M. TURNOV, K. HAMAL and V. KUBECCK,Czech. J. Phys. B38 (1988) 237.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    T. WEGNER, G. HUBER and K. PETERMANN, in ‘Tunable Solid State Lasers, Technical Digest’ (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1989) p. 64.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    R. M. MACFARLANE and W. LENTH, in ‘Tunable Solid State Lasers II’, edited by A. B. Budgor, L. Esterowitz and L. G. De Shazer (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986) p. 14.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    J. C. WALLING, H. P. JENSSEN, R. C. MORRIS, E. W. O'DELL and O. G. PETERSON,Opt. Lett. 4 (1979) 182.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    For an excellent review, see J. A. CAIRD, in ‘Tunable Solid State Lasers II’, edited by A. B. Budgor, L. Esterowitz and L. G. De Shazer (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986) p. 20.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    M. L. SHAND and H. P. JENSEN,IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19 (1983) 490.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    J. DRUBE, G. HUBER and D. MATEIKA, in ‘Tunable Solid State Lasers II’, edited by A. B. Budgor, L. Esterowitz and L. G. De Shazer (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986) p. 118.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    V. J. FRATELLO, C. D. BRANDLE and A. J. VALENTINO,J. Cryst. Growth 80 (1987) 26.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    P. F. MOULTON, ibid.QE-21 (1985) 1582.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    P. F. MOULTON and A. MOORADIAN,Appl. Phys. Lett. 35 (1979) 127.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    D. WELFORD and P. M. MOULTON,Opt. Lett. 13 (1988) 975.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    P. F. MOULTON, in ‘Laser Handbook’, (edited by M. Bass and M. Stitch (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1985) p. 203.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    M. D. STURGE,Phys. Rev. B8 (1973) 6.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    M. H. L. PRYCE, in ‘Phonons’, edited by R. W. H. Stevenson (Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh and London, 1965) 403.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman and Hall Ltd. 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Henderson
    • 1
  • M. Yamaga
    • 2
  • K. P. Donnell
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physics and Applied PhysicsUniversity of StrathclydeGlasgowUK
  2. 2.Department of Physics, Faculty of General EducationGifu UniversityGifuJapan

Personalised recommendations