Noninvasive evaluation of kinetics of gallbladder emptying and filling in the dog
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Patterns of gallbladder contraction induced by a meal or cerulein were examined by means of real-time ultrasonography in conscious dogs. The postprandial gallbladder emptying was characterized by two parameters of the power-exponential function: the gallbladder half emptying timeT1/2=47.3 ± 4.7 min and the curve shape paremeterS=0.866 ± 0.036. Cerulein infused at stepwise increasing rates of 0.7, 2.2, 7.4, 22.2, and 66.5 pmol/kg/hr, administered each for 10 min, evoked a gallbladder contraction to 87.4 ± 3.8%, 66.7 ± 2.4%, 44.5 ± 1.5%, 25.9 ± 2.1%, and 11.9 ± 2.0% of the basal volume, respectively. The dependence of the gallbladder emptying on the dose of cerulein was described by the equation of linear regressiony −21.33 [ln(dose + 1)] + 95.81 (r=−0.963,P<0.001). Accordingly, the cerulein dose required to evoke a 50% reduction of the gallbladder volume amounted to 7.6 pmol/kg/hr (95% confidence interval: 6.8–8.6 pmol/kg/hr). A plateau at the level of about 44% of the basal gallbladder volume characterized the time-course of the gallbladder emptying between 20 and 60 min of the infusion at a constant rate of 7.4 pmol/kg/hr. On the other hand, the 1-hr infusion of 22.2 pmol/kg/hr evoked a continuous decrease in the gallbladder volume with a nadir of 10.2 ± 0.7% achieved at 60 min. Refilling of the gallbladder, contracted after a 1-hr infusion of cerulein, was complete within 30 and 60 min after the end of infusion for rates of 7.4 pmol/kg/hr and 22.2 pmol/kg/hr, respectively. The time course of the gallbladder filling after cessation of 1-hr infusion of cerulein at 7.4 pmol/kg/hr was described by the equation of linear regression of relative gallbladder volumes vs time:y=1.732x + 48.61 (r=0.739,P < 0.001). Refilling of the gallbladder was faster during the first 30 min (y=2.191x+7.13,r=0.885,P<0.001) and slower between 30 and 60 min (y=1.218x + 74.97,r=0.533,P < 0.001) after the end of a 1-hr infusion of cerulein at a rate of 22.2 pmol/kg/hr.
Key wordscerulein dog gallbladder emptying gallbladder filling ultrasonography
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