Skip to main content

Gastric emptying of solids is markedly delayed when meals are fried

Abstract

We studied the effect of heat-treated fats on gastric emptying. Eight healthy asymptomatic volunteers (five males; age 28–41 years) ate on different days and in random order two meals identical in contents (pasta, tomato, beef, olive oil, carrots, orange, water; 870 kcal males, 700 kcal females; 47% of calories from carbohydrate, 36% from fat, 17% from protein), but cooked differently (fats fried or not). Ultrasound measurement of antral diameters was used to calculate basal antral section, its maximal dilation after the meal, the time necessary for total emptying, and the percent retention at hourly intervals. No difference was found in basal and maximal antral diameters after the two meals. On the contrary, total gastric emptying was significantly delayed after the fried meal [317.1 (24.12) vs 226.7 (18.4) min, mean (1sem);P≪0.002]. A significantly greater percentage of maximal antral distension was still present between 120 and 240 min after the fried meal. The glycemic response and hunger feeling were the same after the two meals, whereas there was a longer persistence of satiety and epigastric fullness after the fried meal. In conclusion, gastric emptying can be influenced not only by the meal content, but also by the way it is cooked.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1.

    Kang JY, Tay HH, Guan R: Chronic upper abdominal pain: site and radiation in various structural and functional disorders and the effect of various foods. Gut 33:743–748, 1992

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Heading RC, Bolondi L, Camilleri M, Corinaldesi R, Horowitz M, Jian R, Scarpignato R: Gastric emptying. Gastroenterol Int 5:203–215, 1992

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Hunt JN, Stubbs DF: The volume and energy content of meals as determinants of gastric emptying. J Physiol (London) 245:209–225, 1975

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Moore JG, Christian PE, Brown JA, Brophy C, Datz F, Taylor A, Alazraki N: Influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of liquids in man. Dig Dis Sci 29:513–519, 1984

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Houghton LA, Mangnall YF, Read NW: Effect of incorporating fat into a liquid test meal on the relation between intragastric distribution and gastric emptying in human volunteers. Gut 31:1226–1229, 1990

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Heddle R, Collins PJ, Dent J, Horowitz M, Read NW, Chatterton B, Houghton LA: Motor mechanisms associated with slowing of the gastric emptying of a solid meal by an intraduodenal lipid infusion. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 4:437–447, 1989

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Hunt JN: The viscosity of a test meal. Its influence on gastric secretion and emptying. Lancet 1:17–18, 1954

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Di Lorenzo C, Williams CM, Hajnal F, Valenzuela JE: Pectin delays gastric emptying and increases satiety in obese subjects. Gastroenterology 95:1211–1215, 1988

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Sun WM, Houghton LA, Read NW, Grundy DG, Johnson AG: Effect of meal temperature on gastric emptying of liquids in man. Gut 29:302–305, 1988

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    AOAC: Official Methods of Analysis, 12th ed. Washington, DC, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 1975

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Prosky L, Asp NG, Furda I, Devries JW, Schweizer TF, Harland BF: Determination of total dietary fiber in foods, food products and total diets: Interlaboratory study. J Assoc Off Anal Chem 67:1044–1049, 1984

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Bolondi L, Bortolotti M, Santi M, Caletti T, Gaiani S, Labò G: Measurement of gastric emptying time by real-time ultrasonography. Gastroenterology 89:752–759, 1985

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Siegel JA, Urbain J-L, Adler LP, Charkes ND, Maurer AH, Brevsky B, Knight LC, Fisher RS, Malmud LS: Biphasic nature of gastric emptying. Gut 29:85–89, 1988

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Turconi G, Bazzano R, Caramella R, Crovetti R, Porrini M: High-calorie fibre-rich breakfast: Its effect on satiety. J Hum Nutr Dietet 6:245–252, 1993

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Orthoefer FT: Oil use in the food service industry. J Am Oil Chem Soc 64:789–805, 1987

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Armstrong SG, Bergan JG: Factors affecting stability and nutritive value of fatty acids: Culinary practices.In Fatty Acids in Foods and Their Health Implications. CK Chow (ed). New York, Marcel Dekker, 1993, pp 353–362

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Valentini I, Benini L, Marabini A, Zamboni M, Giorgetti PG, Galopin T, Brocco G, Cavallini G, Scuro LA:In vitro evaluation of some radioactive meals used for gastric emptying studies in man. Ital J Gastroenterol 16:75, 1984 (abstract)

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Ricci R, Bontempo I, Corazziari E, La Bella A, Torsoli A: Real time ultrasonography of the gastric antrum. Gut 34:173–176, 1993

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Màrquez-Ruiz G, Dobarganes MC: Changes in endogenous lipid excretion in rats fed diets containing non-heated and thermally oxidized oils. Scand J Gastroenterol 27:1069–1076, 1992

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Màrquez-Ruiz G, Pérez-Camino MC, Dobarganes MC:In vitro action of pancreatic lipase on complex glycerides from thermally oxidized oils. Fat Sci Technol 94:307–312, 1992

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Houghton LA, Read NW, Heddle R, Horowitz M, Collins PJ, Chatterton B, Dent J: Relationship of the motor activity of the antrum, pylorus and duodenum to gastric emptying of a solid-liquid mixed meal. Gastroenterology 94:1285–1291, 1988

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Lin HC, Doty JE, Reedy TJ, Meyer JH: Inhibition of gastric emptying by sodium oleate depends on length of intestine exposed to nutrient. Am J Physiol 259:G1031-G1036, 1990

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Meyer JH: The physiology of gastric motility and gastric emptying.In Textbook of Gastroenterology. T Yamada, DH Alpers, C Owyang, DW Powell, FE Silverstein (eds). Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1991, pp 137–157

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Quartermain D, Kissileff M, Shapiro R, Miller NE: Suppression of food intake with intragastric loading: Relation to natural feeding cycle. Science 173:941–943, 1971

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Bergmann JF, Chassany O, Petit A, Triki R, Caulin C, Segrestaa JM: Correlation between echographic gastric emptying and appetite: influence of psyllium. Gut 33:1042–1043, 1992

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Blundell JE, Burley VJ, Cotton JR, Lawton CL: Dietary fat and the control of energy intake: evaluating the effects of fat on meal size and postmeal satiety. Am J Clin Nutr 57(suppl):772S-778S, 1993

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Meyer JH, GU YG, Jehn D, Taylor IL: Intragastric vs intraintestinal viscous polymers and glucose tolerance after liquid meals of glucose. Am J Clin Nutr 48:260–266, 1988

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Flourie B, Vidon N, Chayavialle JA, Palma R, Franchisseur C, Bernier JJ: Effect of increased amounts of pectin on a solid-liquid meal digestion in healthy man. Am J Clin Nutr 42:495–503, 1985

    Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Leeds AR, Gassull MA, Haisman P, Dilawari J, Goff DV, Metz GL, Alberti KGM: Dietary fibres, fibre analogues, and glucose tolerance: Importance of viscosity. Br Med J 1:1392–1394, 1978

    Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Holtz S, Heading RC, Carter DC, Prescott LF, Tothill P: Effect of gel fibre on gastric emptying and absorption of glucose and paracetamol. Lancet 1:636–639, 1979

    Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Bornet FRJ, Bizais Y, Bruley Des Varannes S, Pouliquen B, Delort Laval J, Galmiche JP: α-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1.) susceptibility rather than viscosity or gastric emptying rate control plasma responses to starch in healthy humans. Br J Nutr 63:207–220, 1990

    Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Collings P, Williams C, MacDonald I: Effect of cooking on serum glucose and insulin responses to starch. Br Med J 282:1032–1033, 1981

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Luigi Benini MD.

Additional information

This work was supported by grant 93.00599.PF41 from the Italian National Research Council (CNR)-Targeted Project “Prevention and Control of Disease Factors,” Subproject “Alimentation.”

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Benini, L., Brighenti, F., Castellani, G. et al. Gastric emptying of solids is markedly delayed when meals are fried. Digest Dis Sci 39, 2288–2294 (1994). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02087640

Download citation

Key words

  • gastric emptying
  • appetite regulation
  • ultrasound
  • glucose response
  • food handling