Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless

, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp 81–97 | Cite as

Multicultural perspectives on counseling survivors of rape

  • Clare G. Holzman
Article

Abstract

The dominant Euro-American culture is a rape-prone culture, as defined by Sanday. Within that culture, rape is both a tool and a consequence of interlocking systems of oppression based on race, ethnicity, class, and sexual orientation. The impact of rape on an individual survivor can only be fully understood in the context of the survivor's own culture, religious beliefs, and experience as an immigrant or refugee. Issues of race, culture, class, and sexual orientation influence every step in the counseling of a rape survivor. Knowledge about the client's culture is essential if accurate assessment and culturally appropriate service are to be provided. Specific examples of the impact of these issues are presented. Ways in which the cultural values implicit in the crisis counseling model may conflict with the client's values and needs are examined.

Key words

rape counseling rape survivors multicultural counseling 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bourque, L. B. (1989).Defining rape. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Bowen, D. J., Carscadden, L., Beighle, K., & Fleming, I. (1992). Post-traumatic stress disorder among Salvadoran women: Empirical evidence and description of treatment.Women and Therapy, 13, 267–280.Google Scholar
  3. Bradmiller, L. L., & Walters, W. S. (1985). Seriousness of sexual assault charges: Influencing factors.Criminal Justice & Behavior, 12, 463–484.Google Scholar
  4. Burstow, B. (1992).Radical feminist therapy: Working in the context of violence. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  5. Burt, M. R. (1980). Cultural myths and supports for rape.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38, 217–230.Google Scholar
  6. Carby, H. V. (1987).Reconstructing womanhood: The emergence of the Afro-American woman novelist. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Chester, B. (1992). Women and political torture: Work with refugee survivors in exile.Women and Therapy, 13, 209–220.Google Scholar
  8. Collins, P. H. (1993). The sexual politics of Black womanhood. In P. B. Bart and E. G. Moran (Eds.),Violence against women (pp. 85–104). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  9. Davis, A. Y. (1981).Women, race, and class. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  10. Deitz, S. R., & Byrnes, L. E. (1981). Attribution of responsibility for sexual assault: The influence of observer empathy and defender occupation and attractiveness.Journal of Psychology, 108, 17–29.Google Scholar
  11. Devore, W., & Schlesinger, E. G. (1987).Ethnic-sensitive social work practice (2nd ed.). Columbus, OH: Merrill.Google Scholar
  12. Enloe, C. (1989).Bananas, beaches, and bases: Making feminist sense of international politics. Berkeley, CA: University of California.Google Scholar
  13. Federal Bureau of Investigation (1992).Uniform crime reports for the United States (1991). Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  14. Feild, H. S. (1978). Attitudes toward rape: A comparative analysis of police, rapists, crisis counselors, and citizens.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 156–179.Google Scholar
  15. Feild, H. S. (1979). Rape trials and juror decisions: A psychological analysis of the effects of victim, defendant, and case characteristics.Law and Human Behavior, 3, 261–284.Google Scholar
  16. Feldman-Summers, S., & Ashworth, C. D. (1981). Factors related to intentions to report a rape.Journal of Social Issues, 37, 53–70.Google Scholar
  17. Fine, M. (1983–1984). Coping with rape: Critical perspectives on consciousness.Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 3, 249–267.Google Scholar
  18. Fischer, G. J. (1987). Hispanic and majority student attitudes toward forcible date rape as a function of differences in attitudes toward women.Sex Roles, 17, 93–101.Google Scholar
  19. Giacopassi, D. J., & Dull, R. T. (1986). Gender and racial differences in the acceptance of rape myths within a college population.Sex Roles, 15, 63–75.Google Scholar
  20. Hall, J. D. (1983). “The mind that burns in each body”: Women, rape, and racial violence. In A. Snitow, C. Stansell, and S. Thompson. (Eds.),Powers of desire: The polities of sexuality (pp. 329–349). New York: Monthly Review Press.Google Scholar
  21. Hindelang, M. J., & Davis, B. L. (1977). Forcible rape in the United States: A statistical profile. In D. Chappell, R. Geis, and G. Geis. (Eds.),Forcible rape: The crime, the victim, and the offender (pp. 87–114). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  22. hooks, b. (1981).Ain't I a woman: Black women and feminism (pp. 22–86). Boston: South End Press.Google Scholar
  23. Kanuha, V. (1987). Sexual assault in Southeast Asian communities: Issues in intervention.Response, 10, 4–6.Google Scholar
  24. Kaye/Kantrowitz, M. (1992).The issue is power: Essays on women Jews, violence and resistance. San Francisco: Aunt Lute.Google Scholar
  25. Koss, M. P., Gidycz, C. A., & Wisniewski, N. (1987). The scope of rape: Incidence and prevalence of sexual aggression and victimization in a national sample of higher education students.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 162–170.Google Scholar
  26. LaFree, G. D. (1980). The effects of sexual stratification by race on official reactions to rape.American Sociological Review, 45, 842–854.Google Scholar
  27. Lottes, I. L. (1988). Sexual socialization and attitudes toward rape. In A. W. Burgess (Ed.),Rape and sexual Assault II (pp. 193–220). New York: Garland.Google Scholar
  28. Lundberg-Love, P., & Lundberg-Love, G. R. (1989). Date rape: Prevalence, risk factors, and a proposed model. In M. A. Pirog-Good and J. E. Stets (Eds.),Violence in dating relationships (pp. 169–184). New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  29. Matthews, N. A. (1993). Surmounting a legacy: The expansion of racial diversity in a local anti-rape movement. In P. B. Bart and E. G. Moran (Eds.),Violence against women (pp. 177–192). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  30. McGoldrick, M., Pearce, J. K., & Giordana, J. (Eds.) (1982).Ethnicity and family therapy. NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  31. Mollica, R. (1986).Cambodian Refugee Women at Risk. Paper presented at the American Psychological Association Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C. Cited in G. B. Van Boemel and P. D. Rozee (1992). Treatment for psychosomatic blindness among Cambodian refugee women.Women and Therapy, 13, 239–266.Google Scholar
  32. Pedersen, P. (Ed.) (1985).Handbook of cross-cultural counseling and therapy. Westport, CT: Greenwood.Google Scholar
  33. Pedersen, P. B., Fukuyama, M., & Heath, A. (1989). Client, counselor, and contextual variables in multicultural counseling. In P. B. Pedersen, J. G. Draguns, W. J. Lonner, and J. E. Trimbale (Eds.),Counseling across cultures (3rd ed.) (pp. 23–52). Honolulu: University of Hawaii.Google Scholar
  34. Pinderhughes, E. (1989).Understanding race, ethnicity, and power: The key to efficacy in clinical practice. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  35. Russell, D. E. H. (1982). The prevalence and incidence of forcible rape and attempted rape of females.Victimology, 7, 81–93.Google Scholar
  36. Russell, D. E. H., & Howell, N. (1983). The prevalence of rape in the United States revisited.Signs, 8, 688–695.Google Scholar
  37. Sanday, P. R. (1981). The socio-cultural context of rape: A cross-cultural study.Journal of Social Issues, 37, 5–27.Google Scholar
  38. Sorenson, S. B., & Siegel, J. M. (1992). Gender, ethnicity, and sexual assault: Findings from a Los Angeles study.Journal of Social Issues, 48, 93–104.Google Scholar
  39. Stevens, P. E., & Hall, J. M. (1990). Abusive health care interactions experienced by lesbians: A case of institutional violence in the treatment of women.Resist, 13, 23–27.Google Scholar
  40. Van Boemel, G. B., & Rozee, P. D. (1992). Treatment for psychosomatic blindness among Cambodian refugee women.Women and Therapy, 13, 239–266.Google Scholar
  41. Ward, C. (1988). Stress, coping and adjustment in victims of sexual assault: The role of psychological defense mechanisms.Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 1, 165–178.Google Scholar
  42. Williams, J. E. (1984). Secondary victimization: Confronting public attitudes about rape.Victimology, 9, 66–81.Google Scholar
  43. Wyatt, G. E. (1992). The sociocultural context of African American and White American women's rape.Journal of Social Issues, 48, 77–91.Google Scholar
  44. Young, K. Z. (1993). The imperishable virginity of Saint Maria Goretti. In P. B. Bart and E. G. Moran (Eds.),Violence against women (pp. 105–113). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Clare G. Holzman
    • 1
  1. 1.New York

Personalised recommendations