Skip to main content

Normal ECG standards for infants and children

Summary

Normal ECG values were determined using computer-assisted measurement of the ECGs of 2,141 white children aged 0 to 16 years divided into 12 age groups.

These values are plotted on graphs containing the second, fifth, 25th, 50th, 75th, 95th, and 98th percentiles for each age group. This provides a convenient, fast, and practical method for comparing the values found in a given ECG with those found in a normal population, taking into account the evolution of ECG patterns with age.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1.

    Boyd E:The Growth of the Surface Area of Human Body. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1935

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Elliot LP, Taylor J, Schiebler GL: Combined ventricular hypertrophy in infancy: Vectorcardiographic observations with special reference to the Katz-Wachtel phenomenon.Am J Cardiol 11:164–172, 1963

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Frank E: An accurate, clinically practical system for spatial vectorcardiography.Circulation 13:737–749, 1956

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Katz LN, Wachtel H: The diphasic QRS type of electrocardiogram in congenital heart disease.Am Heart J 13:202–206, 1937

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Keith JD, Row RD, Vlad P:Heart Disease in Infancy and Childhood. New York, MacMillan Publishing Co, 1978, p 59

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Krovetz LJ, Gessner IH, Schiebler GL:Handbook of Pediatric Cardiology. New York, Harper & Row Publishers, 1969, p 93

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Liebman J: The normal electrocardiogram in newborns and infants (a critical review), in Cassels DE, Ziegler RF (eds):Electrocardiography in Infants and Children. New York, Grune & Stratton Inc, 1966

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Liebman J, Plonsey R: Electrocardiography, in Moss AJ, Adams F, Emmanoulides GC (eds):Heart Disease in Infants, Children and Adolescents, ed 2. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co, 1978, pp 18–61

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    McCammon RW: A longitudinal study of electrocardiographic intervals in healthy children.Acta Paediatrica 50(suppl 126):3–54, 1961

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Nadas AS, Fyler DC:Pediatric Cardiology, ed 3. Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co, 1972, p 668

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Namin EP: Pediatric electrocardiography and vectorcardiography, in Gasul BM, Arcilla RA, Lev M (eds):Heart Disease in Children: Diagnosis and Treatment. Philadelphia, JB Lippincott Co, 1966, p 111

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Namin EP, Miller RA: The normal electrocardiogram and vectorcardiogram in children, in Cassels DE, Ziegler RF (eds):Electrocardiography in Infants and Children. New York, Grune & Stratton Inc, 1966, p 105

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Rautaharju PM, Davignon A, Soumis F, Boiselle E, Choquette A: Evolution of QRS-T relationship from birth to adolescence in Frank-lead orthogonal electrocardiograms of 1,492 normal children.Circulation, 60:196–204, 1979

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Rauthaharju PM, Seale D, Prineas R, Wolf H, Warren J: Changing electrocardiographic recording technology and diagnostic accuracy of myocardial infarction criteria: Improved standards for evaluation of ECG measurement precision.J Electrocardiol 11:321–330, 1978

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Rosen IL, Gardberg M: The electrocardiogram and vectorcardiogram of the normal infant.Dis Chest 32:493–519, 1957

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Simonson E:Differentiation Between Normal and Abnormal in Electrocardiography. St. Louis, CV Mosby Co, 1961

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Smith RE, Hyde CM: Computer analysis of the electrocardiogram in clinical practice, in Manning GW, Ahuja SP (eds):Electrical Activity of the Heart. Springfield, Illinois, Charles C Thomas Publisher, 1969, p 305

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Vaughan VC:Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, Vaughan VC, McKay RJ (eds).Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co., 1975, pp 39-48

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Ziegler RF:Electrocardiographic Studies in Normal Infants and Children. Springfield, Illinois, Charles C Thomas Publisher, 1951

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Ziegler RF: Introduction and clinical application, in Cassels DE, Ziegler RF (eds):Electrocardiography in Infants and Children. New York, Grune & Stratton Inc, 1966, p 1

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Ziegler RF: The importance of positive T-waves in the right precordial electrocardiogram during the first year of life.Am Heart J 52:533–564, 1956

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Additional information

Supported in part by the Medical Research Council of Canada, the Canadian Heart Foundation (Québec division), la Fondation Justine-Lacoste-Beaubien, L'Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, and the Macdonald Stewart Foundation.

For reprints ofPercentile Charts on pages 133 to 152, address requests to: Ms. Sandra Whisler, Promotion Department, Springer-Verlag, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Davignon, A., Rautaharju, P., Boisselle, E. et al. Normal ECG standards for infants and children. Pediatr Cardiol 1, 123–131 (1980). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02083144

Download citation

Key words

  • ECG normal standards, children
  • ECG age evolution
  • Computer ECG measurements