Morphology and function of the bladder and urethra in female urinary incontinence
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The conventional investigations, gynaecological examination and cystoscopy give very little information about the causes of incontinence. History taking makes it possible to divide the symptoms into either stress- or urge incontinence. Cystometry, lateral voiding cysto-urethrography and urodynamic examination including sphincter EMG enable us to divide the pathological conditions into suspension defects and bladder dysfunctions. The suspension defects are bladder base insufficiency, vesical descensus and trigonocele. The operation of choice for these conditions depends on whether the suspension defect is anterior or posterior. The bladder dysfunctions are supranuclear and infranuclear neurogenic dysfunctions. The treatment in these cases will ordinarily be medical.
KeywordsPublic Health Urinary Incontinence Pathological Condition Urge Incontinence Bladder Dysfunction
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