International Journal of Theoretical Physics

, Volume 22, Issue 11, pp 1037–1049 | Cite as

Search for elementary quantum statistics

  • Carlos A. González-Bernardo
  • Andrés J. Kálnay


Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac are the main quantum statistics. Therefore, it is likely that if truly elementary building blocks of Nature exist, they are either bosons or fermions, so that it is also likely that one, and only one, of the following possibilities, concerning those elementary building blocks, is correct: (i) all of them are fermions; (ii) some of them are bosons, others fermions; (iii) all of them are bosons; (iv) the distinction between these cases is methodological, not physical. Since tensors can be constructed from spinors, most physicists support one of the first two points of view. However, by starting from the fact that now it is known that bosonization makes sense, and developing a former research by Penney, we defend the point of view that, at least in a finite model of the Universe, the third point of view is the more likely. To avoid confusion we state that we are not concerned with the whole set of the so-called “elementary particles” since most physicists believe by now that, e.g., hadrons are built from quarks, nor concerned with quarks since many physicists suspect they are also composite objects. This research concerns the true elementary building blocks of Nature, assuming that such set exists, whatever those building blocks are. Finally, we extend this research to general finite associative algebras, enlarging the physical applicability of our point of view concerning the role of bosons in Nature.


Field Theory Elementary Particle Quantum Field Theory Building Block Quantum Statistic 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlos A. González-Bernardo
    • 1
    • 2
  • Andrés J. Kálnay
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Centro de FisicaIVICCaracasVenezuela
  2. 2.Instituto Universitario Pedagógico de CaracasCaracasVenezuela
  3. 3.The Institute for Basic ResearchCambridge

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