Skip to main content
Log in

Long-distance transport ofBetula pollen grains and allergic symptoms

  • Published:
Aerobiologia Aims and scope Submit manuscript


An example of the potential importance of air masses as carriers of aero-allergens from distant source areas is provided. Considerable amount ofBetula pollen is relatively often transported to Fennoscandia before the local birch flowering period, mainly by southeastern air masses from eastern part of central Europe. Although the distance and the transport time in some cases can be extensive, the pollen grains seem to cause allergic reactions among sensitive persons.

A comparison between the clinical results andBetula pollen counts from the time before the local flowering season in Stockholm in 1989 is presented.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others


  • Agarwal M.K., Swanson M.C., Reed C.E., Yunginger J.W., (1983) —Immunochemical quantitation of airborne short ragweed, Alternaria, antigen E and Alt-I allergens: a two year prospective study. J. Allergy Clin. Immunology72:40–45.

    Google Scholar 

  • Agarwal M.K., Swanson M.C., Reed C.E., (1984) —Airborne ragweed allergens: Associated with various particle sizes and short ragweed plant parts. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.74:687–693.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cerceau-Larrival M. T., Nilsson S., Cauneau-Pigot A., Berggren B., Derouet L., Verhille A-M., Carbonnier-Jarreau M-C., (1991) —The influence of the environment (natural and experimental) on the composition of the exine of allergenic pollen with respect to the deposition of pollutant mineral particles. In Hjelmroos M., Nilsson S., El-Ghazaly G. (eds.) Proc. 4th Int. conf. Aerobiol. Stockholm, 1990. Grana30:532–546.

    Google Scholar 

  • Foucard T., (1991) —Allergy and allergy-like symptoms in 1050 medical students. Allergy46:20–26.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hjelmroos M., (1991) —Evidence of long-distance transport of Betulapollen. In Hjelmroos M., Nilsson S., El-Ghazaly G. (eds) Proc. 4th Int. conf. Aerobiol. Stockholm, 1990. Grana30:215–228.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jenssen J., Poulsen L.K., Mygind K., Weeke E.R., Weeke B., (1989) —Immunochemical estimations of allergenic activities from outdoor aero-allergens, collected by a high-volume air sampler. Allergy44:52–59.

    Google Scholar 

  • Karppinen A., Nordlund G., Rossi J., Valkama I., Vuori S., (1987) —Description and application of a system for calculating radiation doses due to long range transport of radioactive releases. Finn. Meteorol. Inst. Rep. 1987: 1, 56 pp.

  • Käpylä M., Penttinen A., (1981) —An evaluation of the microscopical counting methods of the tape in Hirst-Burkard pollen and spore trap. Grana20:131–141.

    Google Scholar 

  • Løwenstein H., Mygind N., (1978) —Extraction and degration of timothy pollen allergen during simulated in vivo conditions. Allergy33:238–240.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nilsson S., (1988) — Poursuite des analyses de la pollution particulaire des pollens. Ann. Sci. Nat., 13 Ser.9:125–132.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ogden E.C., Raynor G.S., Haynes J.V., Lewis D.M., Haines J.H., (1974) —Manual for sampling airborne pollen. Hafner, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Popp W., Zwick H., Steyrer K., Rauscher H., Wanke T., (1989) —Sensitization to aero-allergens depends on environmental factors. Allergy44:572–575.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ruffin J., Liu M.Y.G., Sessoms R., Banerjee S., Banerjee U.C., (1986) —Effects of certain atmospheric pollutants (SO2, NO2 and CO) on the soluble amino acids, molecular weight and antigenicity of some airborne pollen grains. Cytobios46:119–129.

    Google Scholar 

  • Solomon W.R., Mathews K.P., (1978) —Aerobiology and inhalant allergens. In Middleton E. Jr., Reed C.E., Ellis E.F. (eds) Allergy principles and practice. C.V. Mosby, St. Louis, p. 899.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wallin J-E., Segerström U., Rosenhall L., Hjelmroos M., (1991) —Allergy symptoms caused by long-distance transported birch pollen. In Hjelmroos M., Nilsson S., El-Ghazaly G. (eds.) Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Aerobiol. Stockholm, 1990. Grana30:381–394.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Hjelmroos, M. Long-distance transport ofBetula pollen grains and allergic symptoms. Aerobiologia 8, 231–236 (1992).

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

Key words