Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics

, Volume 13, Issue 4, pp 315–319 | Cite as

Cumulative experience of percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA) with intracytoplasmic sperm injection

  • M. Tsirigotis
  • M. Pelekanos
  • S. Beski
  • S. Gregorakis
  • C. Foster
  • I. L. Craft


Objective: Our objective was to evaluate the recovery rate of spermatozoa from the epididymis using a percutaneous aspiration technique and to assess the fertilisation rate after intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

Materials and Methods: Fifty-four patients with azoospermia had a total of 59 cycles at IVF with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The cause of the azoospermia was failed vasectomy reversal in 23 cases, congenital absence of the vas in 22 cases, partial testicular failure in 5 cases, and retrograde ejaculation in 2 cases, while the remaining 2 patients had erectile disorders.

Results: A total of 741 oocytes was collected and 521 metaphase II oocytes were subsequently microinjected. Normal fertilisation occurred in 274 oocytes (52.6%), and of these, 234 cleaved (85.4%). In 54 cycles, embryo transfer of more than one embryo occurred (91.5%) and a total of 155 embryos was replaced. The pregnancy rate was 30.5% per cycle and 33.3% per embryo transfer. The implantation rate was 14.2%; failure of fertilisation occurred in two cycles, while in three other cycles the embryos did not cleave.

Conclusions: Percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration can be used successfully to retrieve sperm in men with azoospermia due to obstructive, or nonobstructive, disorders. The technique is simple, cost-effective, and associated with fewer complications than an open microsurgical operation.

Key words

azoospermia percutaneous aspiration intracy-toplasmic sperm injection 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Tsirigotis
    • 1
  • M. Pelekanos
    • 1
  • S. Beski
    • 1
  • S. Gregorakis
    • 1
  • C. Foster
    • 1
  • I. L. Craft
    • 1
  1. 1.London Gynaecology and Fertility CentreLondonUK

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