Mathematical Geology

, Volume 28, Issue 8, pp 1017–1023 | Cite as

Application of a feedforward neural network in the search for Kuroko deposits in the Hokuroku district, Japan

  • Donald A. Singer
  • Ryoichi Kouda


A feedforward neural network with one hidden layer and five neurons was trained to recognize the distance to kuroko mineral deposits. Average amounts per hole of pyrite, sericite, and gypsum plus anhydrite as measured by X-rays in 69 drillholes were used to train the net. Drillholes near and between the Fukazawa, Furutobe, and Shakanai mines were used. The training data were selected carefully to represent well-explored areas where some confidence of the distance to ore was assured. A logarithmic transform was applied to remove the skewness of distance and each variable was scaled and centered by subtracting the median and dividing by the interquartile range. The learning algorithm of annealing plus conjugate gradients was used to minimize the mean squared error of the scaled distance to ore. The trained network then was applied to all of the 152 drillholes that had measured gypsum, sericite, and pyrite. A contour plot of the neural net predicted distance to ore shows fairly wide areas of 1 km or less to ore; each of the known deposit groups is within the 1 km contour. The high and low distances on the margins of the contoured distance plot are in part the result of boundary effects of the contouring algorithm. For example, the short distances to ore predicted west of the Shakanai (Hanaoka) deposits are in basement. However, the short distances to ore predicted northeast of Furotobe, just off the figure, coincide with the location of the Nurukawa kuroko deposit and the Omaki deposit, south of the Shakanai-Hanaoka deposits, seems to be on an extension of short distance to ore contour, but is beyond the 3 km limit from drillholes. Also of interest are some areas only a few kilometers from the Fukazawa and Shakanai groups of deposits that are estimated to be many kilometers from ore, apparently reflecting the network's recognition of the extreme local variability of the geology near some deposits.

Key words

neural network kuroko massive sulfide exploration 


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Copyright information

© International Association for Mathematical Geology 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donald A. Singer
    • 1
  • Ryoichi Kouda
    • 2
  1. 1.U.S. Geological SurveyMenlo Park
  2. 2.Geological Survey of JapanTsukuba, Ibaraki-kenJapan

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