Heart and Vessels

, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp 79–87 | Cite as

Paired pulse pacing increases cardiac O2 consumption for activation without changing efficiency of contractile machinery in canine left ventricle

  • Hiroyuki Suga
  • Shiho Futaki
  • Nobuaki Tanaka
  • Yoshio Yasumura
  • Takashi Nozawa
  • Dequan Wu
  • Yuichi Ohgoshi
  • Hitoshi Yaku


The relation between cardiac O2 consumption (Vo2) and the total mechanical energy (TME) generated by contraction was studied under paired-pulse (PP) pacing and compared with that under single-pulse pacing at the same basic rate as PP pacing and at the double-pacing rate in ten excised cross-circulated canine left ventricles (LV). TME was assessed by the systolic pressure-volume (P–V) area (PVA) defined as the area bounded by the end-systolic and end-diastolic P–V curves and the systolic P–V trajectory. The Vo2-PVA relation was linear under PP pacing as well as at control and double heart rates. PP pacing increased LV contractility index Emax from 6.3±3.3 (SD) to 18.0±8.6 mmHg/(ml/100 g) and elevated markedly the Vo2-PVA relation by increasing the Vo2-axis intercept (or PVA-independent Vo2) from 0.62±0.11 to 1.13±0.35 J · beat−1 · 100 g−1. However, PP pacing did not change the slope of the Vo2-PVA relation at 2.24±0.53 (dimensionless). The efficiency from PVA-dependent Vo2 (total Vo2-PVA-independent Vo2) to PVA (= TME), calculated as the reciprocal of the slope of the Vo2-PVA relation, was also constant at 47±11% regardless of PP pacing. These results are similar to previous results obtained by positive inotropic interventions with catecholamines and Ca2+. We conclude that PP pacing augments the PVA-independent Vo2 for activation without affecting the efficiency of the contractile machinery to generate TME from the PVA-dependent Vo2.

Key words

Heart Cardiac energetics Pressure-volume area Excitation-contraction coupling Efficiency 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Suga H, Yamada O, Goto Y (1984) Energetics of ventricular contraction as traced in the pressure-volume diagram. Fed Proc 43: 2411–2413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Suga H, Igarashi Y, Yamada O, Goto Y (1986) Cardiac oxygen consumption and systolic pressure volume area. Basic Res Cardiol 81 (Suppl 1): 39–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Suga H, Goto Y, Igarashi Y, Yamada O (1987) The pressure-volume area as a predictor of cardiac oxygen consumption. In: Sideman S, Beyar R (eds) Simulation and control of the cardiac system, vol III. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 69–83Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Suga H (1979) Total mechanical energy of a ventricle model and cardiac oxygen consumption. Am J Physiol 236: H498-H505PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Suga H, Hayashi T, Shirahata M (1981) Ventricular systolic pressure-volume area as predictor of cardiac oxygen consumption. Am J Physiol 240: H39-H44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Suga H, Hayashi T, Suehiro S, Hisano R, Shirahata M, Ninomiya I (1981) Equal oxygen consumption rates of isovolumic and ejecting contractions with equal systolic pressure-volume areas in canine left ventricle. Circ Res 49: 1082–1091PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Suga H, Hisano R, Hirata S, Hayashi T, Ninomiya I (1982) Mechanism of higher oxygen consumption rate: pressure-loaded vs. volume-loaded heart. Am J Physiol 242: H942-H948PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Suga H, Hisano R, Hirata S, Hayashi T, Yamada O, Ninomiya I (1983) Heart rate-independent energetics and systolic pressure-volume area in dog heart. Am J Physiol 244: H206-H214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Suga H, Hisano R, Goto Y, Yamada O, Igarashi Y (1983) Effect of positive inotropic agents on the relation between oxygen consumption and systolic pressure volume area in canine left ventricle. Circ Res 53: 306–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Suga H, Yamada O, Goto Y, Igarashi Y, Ishiguri H (1984) Constant mechanical efficiency of contractile machinery of canine left ventricle under different loading and inotropic conditions. Jpn J Physiol 34: 679–698PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gibbs CL, Chapman JB (1985) Cardiac mechanics and energetics: chemomechanical transduction in cardiac muscle. Am J Physiol 249: H199-H209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ross J Jr, Sonnenblick EH, Kaiser GA, Frommer PL, Braunwald E (1965) Electroaugmentation of ventricular performance and oxygen consumption by repetitive application of paired electrical stimuli. Circ Res 16: 332–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sonnenblick EH, Ross J, Covell JW, Kaiser GA, Braunwald E (1965) Velocity of contraction as a determinant of myocardial oxygen consumption. Am J Physiol 209: 919–927PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Braunwald E (1969) The determinants of myocardial oxygen consumption. Physiologist 12: 65–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Suga H, Goto Y, Nozawa T, Yasumura Y, Futaki S, Tanaka N (1987) Force-time integral decreases with ejection despite constant oxygen consumption and pressure-volume area in dog left ventricle. Circ Res 60: 797–803PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Steiner C, Kovalik TW (1968) Simple technique for production of chronic complete heart block in dogs. J Appl Physiol 25: 631–632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shepherd AP, Burger CG (1977) A solid-state arteriovenous oxygen difference analyzer for flowing whole blood. Am J Physiol 232: H437-H440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Suga H, Yamada O, Goto Y, Igarashi Y, Yasumura Y, Nozawa T, Futaki S (1987) Left ventricular O2 consumption and pressure-volume area in puppies. Am J Physiol 253: H770-H776PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Suga H, Sagawa K, Shoukas AA (1973) Load independence of the instantaneous pressure-volume ratio of the canine left ventricle and effects of epinephrine and heart rate on the ratio. Circ Res 32: 314–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Snedecor GW, Cochran WG (1971) Statistical methods, edn 6, Iowa State University Press, IowaGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Burkhoff D, Sugiura S, Yue DT, Sagawa K (1987) Contractility-dependent curvilinearity of end-systolic pressure-volume relations. Am J Physiol 252: H1218-H1227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gibbs CL, Papadoyannis DE, Drake AJ, Noble MIM (1980) Oxygen consumption of the nonworking and potassium chloride-arrested dog heart. Circ Res 47: 408–417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wier WG, Yue DT (1986) Intracellular calcium transients underlying the short-term force-interval relationship in ferret ventricular myocardium. J Physiol 376: 507–530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    King AJ, Taylor DEM (1968) The inotropic action of paired pulse stimulation in the normal and failing heart: an experimental study. Cardiovasc Res 2: 122–129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fabiato A (1985) Simulated calcium current can both cause calcium loading in and trigger calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of a skinned canine cardiac Purkinje cell. J Gen Physiol 85: 291–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Manring A, Hollander PB (1971) The interval-strength relationship in mammalian atrium: a calcium exchange model. Biophys J 11: 483–501Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schouten VJA, Van Deen JK, De Tombe P, Verveen AA (1987) Force-interval relationship in heart muscle of mammals. A calcium compartment model. Biophys J 51: 13–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Burkhoff D, Yue DT, Oikawa RY, Franz MR, Schaefer J, Sagawa K (1987) Influence of ventricular contractility on non-work-related myocardial oxygen consumption. Heart Vessels 3: 66–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nozawa T, Yasumura Y, Futaki S, Tanaka N, Igarashi Y, Goto Y, Suga H (1987) Relation between oxygen consumption and pressure-volume area of in situ dog heart. Am J Physiol 253 (Heart 22): H31-H40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Futaki S, Yasumura Y, Nozawa T, Tanaka N, Uenishi M, Suga H (1987) Effect of OPC-8212, a new inotropic agent, on relation between myocardial contractility and oxygen consumption (Abstract). Automedica 9: 65Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Alpert NR, Mulieri LA (1986) Determinants of energy utilization in the activated myocardium. Fed Proc 45: 2597–2600PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hiroyuki Suga
    • 1
  • Shiho Futaki
    • 1
  • Nobuaki Tanaka
    • 1
  • Yoshio Yasumura
    • 1
  • Takashi Nozawa
    • 1
  • Dequan Wu
    • 2
  • Yuichi Ohgoshi
    • 1
  • Hitoshi Yaku
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Cardiovascular DynamicsNational Cardiovascular Center (NCVC) Research InstituteSuitaJapan
  2. 2.Guizhou Provincial Institute of Cardiovascular DiseasesPeople's Republic of China, invited to NCVC by the Takeda Science Foundation of JapanJapan

Personalised recommendations