Mycoflora of birds' nests in nest-boxes
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A mycoflora has been investigated in 57 nests of 8 free-living birds' species, placed in nest boxes, on 3 localities in Czechoslovakia. The nests have been shown to be densely inhabited by fungi: 476 isolates ofPhycomycetes, Ascomycetes and Fungi Imperfecti have been recorded, the mean number being 8.4 species in a nest. Keratinolytic fungi have been found in 92.8 % of nests, with the most commonly isolated speciesArthroderma ciferrii, Anixiopsis stercoraria, Chrysosporium keratinophilum, C. tropicum, Ctenomyces serratus, Arthroderma tuberculatum, A. quadrifidum andA. curreyi. From present studies results that birds' nests placed in holes or in boxes supposing they are lined with keratinous material could probably be the dominant habitat ofA. ciferrii (stat. con. =Trichophyton georgiae). Cellulolytic fungi have been found in 87.7 % of the nests, most often species of the generaFusarium, Chaetomium, Alternaria, Phoma andCladosporium. Further, fungi potentially zoopathogenic have been isolated (73.7 % of nests and 13.9 % of all isolates), e.g.,Absidia lichtheimii, Aspergillus amstelodami, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans, A. niger, Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, Microsporon cookei andTrichophyton ajelloi. In many cases have also been ascertained fungi causing “sooty mildews” of various plants (Alternaria alternata, Aureobasidium pullulans, Cladosporium spp.).
As factors influencing both qualitative and quantitative composition of the mycoflora in the nests have been established: composition of lining material, its humidity and pH, birds' species, fledging, repeating nesting in a box, and locality.
In keratinolytic fungi, the highest competitive saprophytic ability on a given substrate have revealedC. keratinophilum, A. stercoraria, A. ciferrii andC. tropicum, while the lowest oneA. quadrifidum andA. cuniculi.
KeywordsCandida Albicans Cladosporium Phoma Alternaria Alternata Aureobasidium
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