Foundations of Physics Letters

, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 67–74 | Cite as

The photomagneton B(3) and longitudinal ghost field B(3) of electromagnetism

  • M. W. Evans


The concepts are introduced of the longitudinal ghost fieldB(3) and photomagnetonB(3)) of electromagnetism:B(3) = 〈B(3)〉 =B(0)〈Ĵ〉/ħ, whereB(0) is the magnetic flux density amplitude andĴ the angular momentum operator of a photon beam. The major implication is that the individual photon hasthree degrees of polarization, the longitudinal one being accompanied by the ghost fieldB(3) which has no energy or linear momentum, and is generated from the angular momentum of the photon.

Key words

ghost field photomagneton electromagnetism 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    M. Planck, in M. von Laue, ed.,M. Planck, Physikalische Abhandlungen und Vortrage (Vieweg, Braunschweig, 1958).Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    S. N. Bose,Z. Phys. 26, 178 (1924); reviewed in Ref. 3, Chap. 23.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    A. Pais,The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1982).Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    E. P. Wigner,Ann. Math. 40, 149 (1939).Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Y. Aharonov and D. Bohm,Phys. Rev. 115, 485 (1959).Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    J. P. van der Ziel, P. S. Pershan, and L. D. Malmstrom,Phys. Rev. Lett.,15, 190 (1965);Phys. Rev. 143, 574 (1966).Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    J. Deschamps, M. Fitaire, and M. Lagoutte,Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 1330 (1970); alsoRev. Appl. Phys. 7, 155 (1972).Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    T. W. Barrett, H. Wohltjen, and A. Snow,Nature 301, 694 (1983).Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    B. Talin, V. P. Kaftandjan, and L. Klein,Phys. Rev. A 11, 648 (1975).Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    P. F. Liao and G. C. Bjorklund,Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 584 (1976).Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    M. Ayadi and J Ferre,Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 274 (1983).Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    V. P. Kaftandjan and L. Klein,Phys. Lett. A 62, 317 (1977).Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Reviewed by R. Zawodny in Ref. 29.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    N. Sanford, R. W. Davies, A. Lempicki, W. J. Miniscalco, and R. J. Nettel,Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 1803 (1983).Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    J. Frey, R. Frey, C. Flytzannis, and R. Triboulet,Opt. Commun. 84, 76 (1991).Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    L. de Broglie,La Méchanique Ondulatoire du Photon (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1940, 1957); also Library of Congress Listings, The National Union Catalog, Pre-1956 Imprints, Vol. 77 (Mansell Information, London, 1970), pp. 434–9.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    M. Moles and J.-P. Vigier,C. R. Acad. Sc. (Paris),276, 697 (1973) (communicated by L. de Broglie).Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    J.-P. Vigier, “Present experimental status of the Einstein-de Broglie theory of light,”Proc. I.S.Q.M. Workshop (Tokyo, 1992).Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    M. W. Evans,Physica B 182, 227, 237 (1992);183, 103 (1993);The Photon's Magnetic Field (World-Scientific, Singapore, 1993).Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    B. W. Shore,The Theory of Coherent Atomic Excitation Vol. 1 (Wiley, New York, 1990), Chap. 9.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    J. D. Jackson,Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1962).Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    M. W. Evans and F. Farahi in Ref. 29. Vol. 85(2).Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    M. W. Evans,Mod. Phys. Lett. 7, 1247 (1993);Phys. Rev. D submitted.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    P. W. Atkins,Molecular Quantum Mechanics (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1983).Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    M. W. Evans and J.-P. Vigier,Foundations of Physics, in press; also in Ref. 29, Vol. 85(2).Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    B. A. Zon, V. Yu. Kuperschmidt, G. V. Pakhomov, and T. T. Urazbaev,JETP Lett. 45, 273 (1987).Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    M. W. Evans in A. van der Merwe, ed., “Particles and Waves”Proceedings of the 1992 Trani Conference, the de Broglie Centennial (Plenum, New York, 1994).Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    F. Selleri,Quantum Paradoxes and Physical Reality, A. van der Merwe, ed. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1990).Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    M. W. Evans, and S. Kielich, eds.,Modern Nonlinear Optics, Vols. 85(1), 85(2), 85(3) ofAdvances in Chemical Physics, I. Prigogine and S. A. Rice, eds. (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1993).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. W. Evans
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsUniversity of North CarolinaCharlotte

Personalised recommendations