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The freckle sign—An endoscopic feature of the cecum

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Diseases of the Colon & Rectum


Mucosal spots, or “freckles”, surrounding the appendiceal orifice are an endoscopie feature of the cecum. These are clusters of 1 to 2 mm round or oval slightly raised spots, each with a pale center and an erythematous border. They correlate microscopically with subepithelial and submucosal lymphoid follicles. The freckling pattern, identified in about one third of colonoscopies, was seen best with the videoendoscope and was identified more commonly in patients with systemic illness. Recognition of mucosal freckling around the appendiceal orifice helps identify the cecum and may be useful in the evaluation of cecal and appendiceal pathology.

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Fleshner, P.R., Ackroyd, F.W., Shellito, P.C. et al. The freckle sign—An endoscopic feature of the cecum. Dis Colon Rectum 33, 836–839 (1990).

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