Laparoscopic techniques for fecal diversion
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Although the role of laparoscopic techniques in performing major colorectal resections is unclear, laparoscopy may be well suited for fecal diversion procedures because no resection and minimal tissue dissection is required. PURPOSE: This report reviews our initial experience with laparoscopic stoma procedures to assess safety and efficacy. METHODS: Using a simple two-cannula technique, 24 such procedures (16 loop ileostomies, 6 end sigmoid colostomies, 1 transverse, and 1 sigmoid loop colostomy) were attempted. Indications for diversion were rectovaginal fistula (7), perianal sepsis (7), incontinence (4), advanced rectal or colon carcinoma (4), and complicated pelvic infection (2). There were 15 females and 9 males with a median age of 44 (range, 25–88) years. RESULTS: Median operative time was 60 (range, 20–120) minutes, and median blood loss was 50 (range, 0–150) ml. There were no intraoperative complications. One case was converted to a laparotomy because of dense adhesions. Median time to passage of both flatus and stool was one (range, 1–3) day for ileostomy patients, two (range, 2–4) days for flatus, and 3 (range, 2–6) days for stool after colostomy. Median time to discharge was 6 (range, 2–28) days and was often delayed by the primary disease process or ostomy teaching. One major postoperative complication, a pulmonary embolism, occurred eight days after operation in a patient with near obstructing, widely metastatic colon carcinoma. This patient later died of pulmonary failure. All stomas have functioned well, with no revisions required. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic fecal diversion procedures can be performed safely, simply, and effectively. Apparent advantages over standard techniques are avoidance of a laparotomy, while maintaining the ability to precisely identify and orient the pertinent bowel segment and rapid return of bowel function.
Key wordsLaparoscopy Ileostomy Colostomy Laparoscopic surgery Fecal diversion Intestinal surgery
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