Diseases of the Colon & Rectum

, Volume 35, Issue 5, pp 488–494 | Cite as

Distribution and quantification of somatostatin in inflammatory disease

  • Toshiaki Watanabe
  • Yoshiro Kubota
  • Toshio Sawada
  • Tetsuichiro Muto
Original Contributions


To study the possible alteration of mucosal-submucosal somatostatin-containing cells in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), the total numbers of somatostatin-containing endocrine cells (SCEC) and submucosal ganglion cells (SGC) were counted in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Tissue specimens from 25 CD and 25 UC patients were fixed in Hollande's fixative immediately after resection and were investigated by immunohistochemical staining. A single specimen was collected from 25 colorectal cancer patients, the control group. There was a significant difference in the number of SCEC between the tissues taken from the proximal colon (ascending and transverse colon) and the distal colon (descending and sigmoid colon). The distal colon tended to contain more somatostatin-immunoreactive cells than did the proximal colon. In IBD, SCEC were decreased in number compared with the controls. This decrease was related to the degree of inflammation in CD; the higher the grade of inflammation, the lower the number of SCEC. The number of SGC was decreased in IBD: however, a significant decrease was noticed only in CD. The anatomic origin and the degree of inflammation did not affect the number of SGC. In the present study, the decrease of somatostatin-containing cells was noticed in both CD and UC, but there was no significant difference between CD and UC. Therefore, it was assumed that this decrease was secondary to inflammation. However, the decrease of somatostatin, which works as an inhibitory peptide for inflammation, might have some role in the pathogenesis of IBD.

Key words

Human colon Neuropeptide Somatostatin Crohn's disease Ulcerative colitis 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Shanahan F, Anton P. Neuroendocrine modulation of the immune system. Possible implications for inflammatory bowel disease. Dig Dis Sci 1988;33:41S-9S.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Polak JM, Bloom SR. The neuroendocrine design of the gut. Clin Endocrinol 1979;8:313–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    O'Doriso MS. Neuropeptides and gastrointestinal immunity. Am J Med 1986;81:74–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    O'Doriso MS, O'Doriso TM, Cataland S, Balcerzak SP. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide as a biochemical marker for polymorphonuclear leukocytes. J Lab Clin Med 1980;96:666–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Goetzl EJ, Chernov-Rogan T, Cooke MP, Renold F, Payan DG. Endogenous somatostatin-like peptides of rat basophilic leukemia cells. J Immunol 1985;135:2707–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Goetzl EJ, Chernov T, Renold F, Payan DG. Neuropeptide regulation of the expression of immediate hypersensitivity. J Immunol 1985;135:802S-5S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    O'Doriso MS, Wood CL, O'Doriso TM. Vasoactive intestinal peptide and neuropeptide modulation of the immune response. J Immunol 1985;135:792S-6S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Costa M, Patel Y, Furness JB, Arimura A. Evidence that some intrinsic neurons of the intestine contain somatostatin. Neurosci Lett 1977;6:215–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Debas HT, Mulvihill SJ. Neuroendocrine design of the gut. Am J Surg 1991;161:243–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Miller RJ. New perspectives on gut peptides. J Med Chem 1984;27:1239–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Brazeau P, Vale W, Burgus R,et al. Hypothalamic peptide that inhibits the secretion of immunoreactive pituitary growth hormone. Science 1973;179:77–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Stanisz AM, Befus D, Bienenstock J. Differential effects of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, substance P, and somatostatin on immunoglobulin synthesis and proliferations by lymphocytes from Peyer's patches, mesenteric lymph nodes, and spleen. J Immunol 1986;136:152–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shanahan F, Denburg JA, Fox J, Bienestock J, Befus D. Mast cell heterogeneity: effects of neuroenteric peptides on histamine release. J Immunol 1985;135:1331–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Foreman JC, Piotrowski W. Peptides and histamine release. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1984;74:127–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Goetzl EJ, Payan DG. Inhibition by somatostatin of the release of mediators from human basophils and rat leukemic basophils. J Immunol 1984;133:3255–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hall R, Page MD, Dieguez PC, Scanlon MF. Somatostatin: a historical perspective. Horm Res 1988;29:50–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Adeyemi EO, Savage AP, Bloom SR, Hodgson HJ. Somatostatin inhibits neutrophil elastase release in vitro. Peptides 1990;11:869–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Toro MJ, Birnbaumer L, Redon MC, Montoya E. Mechanism of action of somatostatin. Horm Res 1988;29:59–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    MacDermott RP, Stenson WF. Alterations of the immune system in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Adv Immunol 1988;42:285–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kubota Y, Petras RE, Ottaway CA, Tubbs RR, Farmer G, Fiocchi C. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and S-100 immunoreactivity in the colon of inflammatory bowel disease patients. Gastroenterology (in press).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sjolund K, Schaffalitzky OB, Muckadell DE,et al. Peptide-containing nerve fibers in the gut wall in Crohn's disease. Gut 1983;24:724–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bishop AE, Polak JM, Bryan MG, Bloom SR, Hamilton S. Abnormalities of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-containing nerves in Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 1980;79:853–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kock TR, Carney JA, Go VL. Vasoactive intestinal peptide and the severity of colonic inflammation in ulcerative colitis. In: MacDermott RP, ed. Inflammatory bowel disease: current status and future approach. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishing Company, 1988:25–30.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Koch TR, Carney JA, Morris VA, Go VL. Somatostatin in the idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases. Dis Colon Rectum 1988;31:198–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Koch TR, Carney JA, Go VL. Distribution and quantitation of gut neuropeptides in normal intestine and inflammatory bowel diseases. Dig Dis Sci 1987;32:369–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dawson J, Bryant MG, Bloom SR, Peters TJ. Gastrointestinal regulatory peptide storage granule abnormalities in jejunal mucosal diseases. Gut 1984;25:636–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ponder BA, Schmidt GH, Wilkinson MM, Wood MJ, Monk M, Reid A. Derivation of mouse intestinal crypts from single progenitor cells. Nature 1985;313:689–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Agerskov K, Bousfield R, Mortensen PE, Olsen J, Christiansen J. Effect of somatostatin on133Xe clearance from colonic mucosa before and after local nervous blockade in unanaesthetized man. Scand J Gastroenterol 1986;21:951–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dharmsathaphon K, Sherwin RS, Dobbins JW. Somatostatin inhibits fluid secretion in the rat jejunum. Gastroenterology 1980;78:1554–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Payan DG, Hess CA, Goetzl EJ. Inhibition by somatostatin of the proliferation of T-lymphocytes and Molt-4 lymphoblasts. Cell Immunol 1984;84:433–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Toshiaki Watanabe
    • 1
  • Yoshiro Kubota
    • 1
  • Toshio Sawada
    • 1
  • Tetsuichiro Muto
    • 1
  1. 1.First Department of SurgeryUniversity of TokyoTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations