Effect of chlorsulfuron on phenylpropanoid metabolism in sunflower seedlings

  • Jeffrey C. Suttle
  • H. R. Swanson
  • D. R. Schreiner


The effect of the herbicide chlorsulfuron on phenylpropanoid titer and metabolism and the role of endogenous ethylene in this response was examined in light-grown sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings. Application of chlorsulfuron to the apex resulted in large increases in both total phenolic and hydroxycinnamic acid content in hypocotyls isolated from the treated seedlings. Both of these parameters were increased within 24 h of herbicide treatment, and both reached a maximum level 3–4 days post-treatment. An increase in ethylene evolution was found to proceed in parallel with the alterations of phenolic content. The extractable activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase,trans-cinnamic-4-hydroxylase, and soluble peroxidase were increased by chlorsulfuron treatment. Chlorsulfuron had little effect on total phenolic content when administered directly to isolated hypocotyl segments. Exogenous ethylene had no effect on the endogenous titer of phenolic compounds. Root-fed cobalt chloride (5 × 10−4 M) inhibited chlorsulfuron-induced ethylene production by 92% and also inhibited the accumulation of phenolic materials by 56%. Exogenous ethylene was unable to reverse the inhibition caused by cobalt chloride. It was concluded that chlorsulfuron-induced increases in phenolic compounds were not mediated solely by endogenous ethylene.


Phenolic Content Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Hydroxycinnamic Acid Cobalt Chloride Ethylene Evolution 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Abeles FB (1973) Ethylene in plant biology. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Amrhein N, Godekek Kefeli H (1976) The estimation of relative intracellular phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL)-activities, and modulationin vivo andin vitro by competitive inhibitors. Ber Dtsch Bot Ges 89:247–259Google Scholar
  3. Camm EL, Towers GHN (1973) Phenylalanine ammonia lyase. Phytochemistry 12:961–973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Elstner EF, Konze JR (1976) Effect of point freezing on ethylene and ethane production by sugar beet leaf discs. Nature 263:351–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Folin D, Ciocalteu V (1927) On tyrosine and tryptophane determinations in protein. J Biol Chem 73:627–650Google Scholar
  6. Harborne JB (1982) Ecological biochemistry. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Hoagland RE, Duke SO (1981) Effects of herbicides on growth and extractable phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity in light- and dark-grown soybean (Glycine max) seedlings. Weed Sci 29:433–439Google Scholar
  8. Hyodo H, Kuroda H, Yang SF (1978) Induction of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and increase in phenolics in lettuce leaves in relation to the development of Russet spotting caused by ethylene. Plant Physiol 62:31–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Jangaard NO (1974) The effect of herbicides, plant growth regulators and other compounds on phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity. Phytochemistry 13:1769–1775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kefeli VI, Kadyrov CSh (1971) Natural growth inhibitors: Their chemical and physiological properties. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 22:185–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kende H, Hanson AD (1976) Relationship between ethylene evolution and senescence in morningglory flower tissue. Plant Physiol 57:523–527PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Krygier K, Sosulski F, Hogge L (1982) Free, esterfied, and insoluble-bound phenolic acids: Extraction and purification procedure. J Agric Food Chem 30:330–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lamoureux GL, Rusness DG (1980)In vitro metabolism of pentachloronitrobenzene to pentachloromethylthiobenzene byonion is: Characterization of glutathione S-transferase, cysteine C-S lyase and S-adenosylmethionine methyl transferase activities. Pest Biochem Physiol 14:50–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Levitt G, Ploeg HL, Weigel RC Jr, Fitzgerald DJ (1981) 2-Chloro-N-[(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3, 5-triazin-2-yl)aminocarbonyl] benzene-sulfonamide, a new herbicide. J Agric Food Chem 29: 416–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Paradies I, Konze JR, Elstner EF, Paxton J (1980) Ethylene: Indicator but not inducer of phytoalexin synthesis in soybean. Plant Physiol 66:1106–1109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Rhodes MJC, Wooltorton LSC (1971) The effect of ethylene on the respiration and on the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase in swede and parsnip root tissue. Phytochemistry 10:1989–1997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rhodes MJC, Wooltorton LSC (1973) Stimulation of phenolic acid and lignin biosynthesis in swede root tissue by ethylene. Phytochemistry 12:107–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Rhodes JM, Wooltorton LSC (1978) The biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in wounded plant storage tissues. In: Kahl G (ed) Biochemistry of wounded plant tissues. deGruyter, Berlin, pp 243–286Google Scholar
  19. Suttle JC (1982) Effect of chlorsulfuron on ethylene production. Plant Physiol 69:S-96Google Scholar
  20. Suttle JC, Schreiner DR (1982) Effects of DPX-4189 (2-chloro-N-[(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)aminocarbonyl] benzene sulfonamide on anthocyanin synthesis, phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity and ethylene production in soybean hypocotyls. Can J Bot 60:741–745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Suttle JC, Swanson HR, Schreiner DR (1982) Effect of chlorsulfuron on phenylpropanoid metabolism in sunflower seedlings. Proc. Plant Growth Regul Soc, 9th Annual MeetingGoogle Scholar
  22. Towers GHN, Wat C (1979) Phenylpropanoid metabolism. Planta Medica 37:97–114Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey C. Suttle
    • 1
  • H. R. Swanson
    • 1
  • D. R. Schreiner
    • 2
  1. 1.U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Metabolism and Radiation Research LaboratoryState University StationFargoUSA
  2. 2.Department of BotanyNorth Dakota State UniversityFargoUSA

Personalised recommendations