Journal of Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 9, Issue 1–4, pp 35–41 | Cite as

Germination stimulation in wild oats (Avena fatua L.) by synthetic strigol analogs and gibberellic acid

  • Judith M. Bradow
  • William J. ConnickJr.
  • Armand B. Pepperman
  • Lynda H. Wartelle
Article

Abstract

At concentrations of 0.01–1 mM, five synthetic multiring analogs of strigol were effective germination stimulants of intact and dehulled wild oat (Avena fatua L.) seeds. The effect was concentration-dependent and equaled or exceeded that produced by equimolar gibberellic acid (GA3). The most effective strigol analog treatments induced 55–80% germination within 7 days in intact wild oat seeds and resulted in 63–86% germination and normal seedling growth over 14 days. Intact wild oat controls germinated 14% after 14 days. The stimulation of wild oat germination by these synthetic strigol analogs demonstrates that these compounds, initially developed as germination stimulants for the seeds of the parasitic weed, witchweed (Striga asiatica L. Kuntz.), have bioregulatory activity in dormant seeds of monocots, as well as dicots. None of the compounds tested significantly affected the germination of nondormant cultivated oat seeds (Avena sativa L.). The commonly used dispersal agent, Tween 20 (0.1%), was found to inhibit germination of cultivated oats, alone and in the presence of 2% acetone.

Keywords

Percent Germination Seed Dormancy Parasitic Weed Germination Stimulant Avena Fatua 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adkins SW, Ross JD (1981) Studies in wild oat seed dormancy. I. The role of ethylene in dormancy breakage and germination of wild oat seeds (Avena fatua L.). Plant Physiol 67:358–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Atwood WM (1914) A physiological study of germination ofAvena fatua. Bot Gaz 57:386–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Babiker AGT, Hamdoun AM (1982) Factors affecting the activity of GR7 in stimulating germination ofStriga hermontheca (Del.) Benth. Weed Res 22:111–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Banting JD (1966a) Studies on the persistence ofAvena fatua. Can J Plant Sci 46:129–140Google Scholar
  5. Banting JD (1966b) Factors affecting the persistence ofAvena fatua. Can J Plant Sci 46:469–478Google Scholar
  6. Bradow JM (1985) Germination regulation byAmaranthus palmeri andAmbrosia artemisiifolia. In: Thompson AC (ed) The chemistry of allelopathy: Biochemical interactions among plants. ACS Symposium Series No. 268. American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., pp 285–299Google Scholar
  7. Bradow JM (1986) Germination promotion in dormant shepherdspurse (Capsella bursa-pastoris) seeds by strigol analogs and other stimulants. Weed Sci 34:1–7Google Scholar
  8. Bradow JM, Connick WJ, Pepperman AB (1988) Comparison of the seed germination effects of synthetic analogs of strigol, gibberellic acid, cytokinins and other plant growth regulators. J Plant Growth Regul 7:227–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown R, Edwards M (1944) The germination ofStriga lutea. I. Host influence and the progress of germination. Ann Bot 8:131–148Google Scholar
  10. Connick WJ, Pepperman AB (1981) Preparation, isolation and high performance liquid Chromatographic separation of diastereomers of a strigol analogue. J Agric Food Chem 29:984–986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cook CE, Whichard LP, Turner B, Wall ME, Egley GH (1966) Germination of witchweed (Striga lutea Lour.): Isolation and properties of a potent stimulant. Science 154:1189–1190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cook CE, Whichard LP, Turner B, Wall ME, Egley GH, Coggon P, Luhan PA, McPhail AT (1972) Germination stimulants. II. The structure of strigol. J Am Chem Soc 94:6198–6199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Corns WG (1960) Effects of gibberellin treatments on germination of various species of weed seeds. Can J Plant Sci 40:47–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Egley GH (1972) Influence of the seed envelope and growth regulators upon seed dormancy in witchweed (Striga lutea Lour). Ann Bot 36:755–770Google Scholar
  15. Egley GH (1980) Stimulation of common cocklebur (Xanthium pensylvanicum) and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retro-flexus) seed germination by injections of ethylene into soil. Weed Sci 28:510–514Google Scholar
  16. Egley GH, Dale JE (1970) Ethylene, 2-chloroethyl-phosphonic acid, and witchweed germination. Weed Sci 18:586–589Google Scholar
  17. Eplee RE (1975) Ethylene: A witchweed germination stimulant. Weed Sci 23:433–436Google Scholar
  18. Eplee RE, Langston MA (1976) Developments in the control ofStriga in the USA. PANS 22:61–64Google Scholar
  19. Fay PK, Gorecki RS (1978) Stimulating germination of dormant wild oat (Avena fatua) seed with sodium azide. Weed Sci 26:323–326Google Scholar
  20. Foley ME (1987) The effect of wounding on primary dormancy in wild oat (Avena fatua) caryopses. Weed Sci 35:180–184Google Scholar
  21. Hsiao AI, Worsham AD, Moreland DE (1981) Effects of sodium hypochlorite and certain plant growth regulators on germination of witchweed (Striga asiatica) seeds. Weed Sci 29:98–100Google Scholar
  22. Hsiao AI, Quick WA (1985) Wild oats (Avena fatua L.) seed dormancy as influenced by sodium hypochlorite, moist storage and gibberellin GA3. Weed Res 25:281–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Johnson AW, Roseberry G, Parker C (1976) A novel approach toStriga andOrobanche control using synthetic stimulants. Weed Res 16:223–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Johnson AW, Gowda G, Hassanali A, Knox J, Monaco S, Rozaviz Z, Roseberry G (1981) The preparation of synthetic analogues of strigol. J Chem Soc Perkin Trans I:1734–1743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Menetrez ME (1985) Interactive effects of strigol and analogs with temperature upon enzyme activity in witchweed seed. PhD Thesis, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NCGoogle Scholar
  26. Metzger JD (1983) Promotion of germination of dormant weed seeds by substituted phthalimides and gibberellic acid. Weed Sci 31:285–289Google Scholar
  27. Naylor JM, Jana S (1976) Genetic adaption for seed dormancy inAvena fatua. Can J Bot 54:306–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Naylor JM, Simpson GM (1961) Dormancy studies in seed ofAvena fatua. 2. A gibberellin sensitive inhibitory mechanism in the embryo. Can J Bot 39:281–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pepperman AB, Connick WJ, Vail SL, Worsham AD, Pavlista AD, Moreland DE (1981) Evaluation of precursors and analogs of strigol as witchweed (Striga asiatica) seed germination stimulants. Weed Sci 30:561–566Google Scholar
  30. Saunders AR (1933) Studies in phanaerogamic parasitism with particular reference toStriga lutea Lour. Union of South Africa Dept Agric Sci Bull No. 128.Google Scholar
  31. Sawhney R, Naylor JM (1980) Dormancy studies in seed ofAvena fatua. 12. Influence of temperature on germination behavior of nondormant families. Can J Bot 58:578–581Google Scholar
  32. Sawhney R, Naylor JM (1982) Dormancy studies in seed ofAvena fatua. 13. Influence of drought stress during seed development on duration of seed dormancy. Can J Bot 60:1016–1020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Simpson GM (1978) Metabolic regulation of dormancy in seeds-A case history of the wild oat. In: Clutter ME (ed) Dormancy and development arrest. Academic Press, New York, pp 167–220Google Scholar
  34. Simpson GM, Naylor JM (1962) Dormancy studies in seeds ofAvena fatua. 3. A relationship between lactase, amylases and gibberellin. Can J Bot 40:1659–1673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ (1981) Biometry, 2nd ed. Freeman, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  36. Stevens RA, Eplee RE (1979)Striga germination stimulants. In: Musselman LJ, Worsham AD, Eplee RE (eds) Proc 2nd Symposium on Parasitic Weeds. NC State University Press, Raleigh, pp 211–214Google Scholar
  37. Thai KM, Jana S, Taylor JM (1985) Variability for response to herbicides in wild oat (Avena fatua) populations. Weed Sci 33:829–835Google Scholar
  38. Tilsner HR, Upadhyaya MK (1985) Induction and release of secondary seed dormancy in genetically pure lines ofAvena fatua. Physiol Plant 64:377–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Worsham AD, Moreland DE, Klingman GC (1959) Stimulation ofStriga asiatica (witchweed) seed germination by 6-substituted purines. Science 130:1654–1655PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Yoshikawa F, Worsham AD, Moreland DE, Eplee RE (1978) Biochemical requirements for seed germination and shoot development of witchweed (Striga asiatica). Weed Sci 26:119–122Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Verlag New York Inc. 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Judith M. Bradow
    • 1
  • William J. ConnickJr.
    • 1
  • Armand B. Pepperman
    • 1
  • Lynda H. Wartelle
    • 1
  1. 1.USDA, ARS, Southern Regional Research CenterNew OrleansUSA

Personalised recommendations