Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 21, Issue 11, pp 1823–1836 | Cite as

Electroantennographic and coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic responses of the mediterranean fruit fly,Ceratitis capitata, to male-produced volatiles and mango odor

  • Allard A. Cossé
  • Julie L. Todd
  • Jocelyn G. Millar
  • Lee Ann Martínez
  • Thomas C. Baker


We have identified five compounds from the headspace of calling male Mediterranean fruit flies (medfly),Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and three compounds from the headspace of ripe mango (Mangifera indica L). using coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic (GC-EAG) recordings, coupled gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis, and electroantennographic (EAG) assays of standards. The male-produced volatiles eliciting responses from female antennae were ethyl-(E)-3-octenoate, geranyl acetate, (E,E)-α-farnesene, linalool, and indole. An EAG dose-response test of linalool enantiomers and indole with female medfly antennae showed relatively strong EAG activities, but no significant difference between (R)-(-)-linalool and (S)-(+)-linalool. The three mango volatiles were identified as (1S)-(-)-β-pinene, ethyl octanoate, andβ-caryophyllene. In addition, a strong antennal response was recorded from a contaminant,α-copaene, present in a commercial sample ofβ-caryophyllene. The EAG response amplitudes from both male and female antennae to the above three mango volatiles were significantly greater than to a hexanol control. For both male and female medfly antennae, the greatest EAG responses were elicited byβ-caryophyllene followed by ethyl octanoate. The mean EAG responses of female antennae toβ-caryophyllene and (1S)-(-)-β-pinene were significantly greater than those of male antennae.

Key Words

Diptera Tephritidae Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata pheromone attractants mango volatiles Mangifera indica Headspace analysis gas chromatography-electroantennography 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Baker, P.S., Howse, P.E., Ondarza, R.N., andReyes, J. 1990. Field trials of synthetic sex pheromone components of the male Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in southern Mexico.J. Econ. Entomol. 83:2235–2245.Google Scholar
  2. Baker, R.R., Herbert, R.H., andGrant, G.G. 1985. Isolation and identification of the sex pheromone of the Mediterranean fruit fly,Ceratitis capitata (Wied.).J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 1985:824–825.Google Scholar
  3. Baker, T.C., Francke, W., Millar, J.G., Löfstedt, C., Hansson, B., Du, J.-W. Phelan, P.L., Vetter, R.S., Youngman, R., andTodd, J.L. 1991. Identification and bioassay of sex pheromone components of the carob moth,Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller).J. Chem. Ecol. 17:1973–1988.Google Scholar
  4. Bartley, J.P. 1988. Volatile flavours of Australian tropical fruits.Biomed. Environ. Mass Spectrom. 16:201–205.Google Scholar
  5. Bartley, J.P., andSchwede, A. 1987. Volatile flavor components in the headspace of the Australian or “Bowen” mango.J. Food Sci. 52:353–355.Google Scholar
  6. Beroza, M., andGreen, N. 1963. Materials tested as insect attractants. USDA Agricultural Handbook No. 536, 119 pp.Google Scholar
  7. Beroza, M., Green, N., Gertler, S.I., Steiner, L.F., andMiyashita, D.H. 1961. Insect attractants. New attractants for the Mediterranean fruit fly.J. Agric. Food Chem. 9:361–365.Google Scholar
  8. Engel, K.H., andTressl, R. 1983. Studies on the volatile components of two mango varieties.J. Agric. Food Chem. 31:796–801.Google Scholar
  9. Flath, R.A., Jang, E.B., Light, D.M., Mon, R.T., Carvalho, L., Binder, R.G., andJohn, J.O. 1993. Volatile pheromonal emissions from the Mediterranean fruit fly: Effects of fly age and time of day.J. Agric. Food Chem. 41:830–837.Google Scholar
  10. Flath, R.A., Cunningham, R.T., Mon, T.R., andJohn, J.O. 1994a. Additional male Mediterranean fruitfly (Ceratitis capitata Wied.) attractants from angelica seed oil (Angelica archangelica L.).J. Chem. Ecol. 20:1969–1984.Google Scholar
  11. Flath, R.A., Cunningham, R.T., Mon, T.R., andJohn, J.O. 1994b. Male lures for Mediterranean fruitfly (Ceratitis capitata Wied.): Structural analogs ofα-copaene.J. Chem. Ecol. 20:2595–2609.Google Scholar
  12. Hagen, K.S., Allen, W.W., andTasson, R.L. 1981. Mediterranean fruit fly: The worst is yet to come.Calif. Agric. 35:5–7.Google Scholar
  13. Heath, R.R., Landolt, P.J., Tumlinson, J.H., Chambers, D.L., Murphy, R.E., Doolittle, R.E., Dueben, B.D., Sivinski, J., andCalkins, C.O. 1991. Analysis, synthesis, formulation, and field testing of three major components of male Mediterranean fruit fly pheromone.J. Chem. Ecol. 17:1925–1940.Google Scholar
  14. Jang, E.B., Light, D.M., Flath, R.A., Nagata, J.T., andMon, T.R. 1989. Electroantennogram responses of the Mediterranean fruit fly,Ceratitis capitata, to identified volatile constituents from calling males.Entomol. Exp. Appl. 50:7–19.Google Scholar
  15. Jang, E.B., Light, D.M., Binder, R.G., Flath, R.A., andCarvalho, L.A. 1994. Attraction of female Mediterranean fruit flies to the five major components of male-produced pheromone in a laboratory flight tunnel.J. Chem. Ecol. 20:9–20.Google Scholar
  16. Landolt, P.J., Heath, R.R., andChambers, D.L. 1992a. Oriented flight responses of female Mediterranean fruit flies to calling males, odor of calling males, and a synthetic pheromone blend.Entomol. Exp. Appl. 65:259–266.Google Scholar
  17. Landolt, P.J., Reed, H.C., andHeath, R.R. 1992b. Attraction of female papaya fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) to male pheromone and host fruit.Environ. Entomol. 21:1154–1159.Google Scholar
  18. Landolt, P.J., Heath, R.R., Millar, J.G., Davis-Hernandez, K.M., Dueben, B.D., andWard, K.E. 1994. Effects of host plant,Gossypium hirsutum L., on sexual attraction of cabbage looper moths,Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).J. Chem. Ecol. 20:2959–2974.Google Scholar
  19. MacLeod, A.J., andPieris, N.M. 1984. Comparison of the volatile components of some mango cultivars.Phytochemistry 23:361–366.Google Scholar
  20. MacLeod, A.J., andSnyder, C.H. 1985. Volatile components of two cultivars of mango from Florida.J. Agric. Food Chem. 33:380–384.Google Scholar
  21. MacLeod, A.J., MacLeod, G., andSnyder, C.H. 1988. Volatile aroma constituents of mango (cv. Kensington).Phytochemistry 27:2189–2193.Google Scholar
  22. Millar, J.G., Zhao, C.-H., Lanier, G.N., O'Callaghan, D.P., Griggs, M., West, J.R., andSilverstein, R.M. 1986. Components of moribund American elm trees as attractants to elm bark beetles,Hylurgopinus rufipes andScolytus multistriatus.J. Chem. Ecol. 12:583–608.Google Scholar
  23. Robacker, D.C., Warfield, W.C., andFlath, R.A. 1992. A four-component attractant for the Mexican fruit fly,Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae), from host fruit.J. Chem. Ecol. 18:1239–1254.Google Scholar
  24. Warthen, J.D., Jr., andMcInnis, D.O. 1989. Isolation and identification of male medfly attractive components inLitchi chinensis stems andFicus spp. stem exudates.J. Chem. Ecol. 15:1931–1946.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Allard A. Cossé
    • 1
  • Julie L. Todd
    • 1
  • Jocelyn G. Millar
    • 1
  • Lee Ann Martínez
    • 1
  • Thomas C. Baker
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EntomologyUniversity of CaliforniaRiverside

Personalised recommendations