Geologische Rundschau

, Volume 55, Issue 3, pp 617–642 | Cite as

Some critical differences between orogenic-plutonic and gravity-stratified anorthosites

  • Jevan P. Berrangé
Aufsätze

Abstract

A comparison of plutons containing anorthosite as a major or minor constituent, in North America, West Greenland, West Europe, Africa and India, shows that there are two essentially different environments in which this rock occurs: There are “orogenic-plutonic anorthosites” which are temporally and spatially related to orogeny and belong to the plutonic class of rocks; there are “gravity-stratified anorthosites” which developed under stable cratogenic conditions and belong to the volcanic class of rocks. The environment, age, form, internal structures, textures, mineralogical composition, gravity fields, associated salic rocks and contact effects characteristic of these two great classes of anorthosite are compared, contrasted and tabulated. There are certain anorthosite-bearing plutons which have features more or less typical of both classes. An “Anorthosite Series” is proposed:

Keywords

Critical Difference 

Zusammenfassung

Plutone, die Anorthosite als Hauptoder Nebenbestandteile enthalten, werden verglichen, und zwar aus Nordamerika, Westgrönland, Westeuropa, Afrika und Indien. Dieser Vergleich zeigt, daß es sich hier um zwei grundsätzlich verschiedene Umgebungen handelt, in denen diese Gesteine vorkommen. Es gibt „Orogen-plutonische Anorthosite“, die zeitlich und räumlich an Orogenesen gebunden sind und zu den plutonischen Gesteinen gehören; anderseits gibt es „Anorthosite, die durch Schwerkraft gebändert sind“ und die sich unter stabilen, kratogenen Bedingungen bildeten und zu den vulkanischen Gesteinen zu zählen sind. Diese beiden großen Klassen werden in bezug auf ihre Umgebung, Alter, Form, Internstrukturen, Texturen, mineralogische Zusammensetzung, Schwerefelder, vergesellschaftete saure Gesteine und Kontakteffekte verglichen, gegenübergestellt und in Tafeln erläutert. Es gibt gewisse Anorthosit-führende Plutone, die Charakterzüge tragen, die mehr oder weniger für beide Klassen typisch sind. Es wird eine „Anorthosit-Serie“ vorgeschlagen:

Résumé

Une comparaison de plutons contenant de l'anorthosite comme constituant majeur ou mineur, en Amérique du Nord, Groenland occidental, Europe occidentale, Afrique et Inde montre qu'il y a deux environments essentiellement différents dans lesquels cette roche se présente. Il y a les « anorthosites plutoniques-orogéniques » qui sont temporairement et spatialement reliées à une orogène et appartiennent au groupe des roches plutoniques. Il y a les « anorthositiques stratiphiés par gravité » qui se sont développésent dans des conditions cratogènes stables et qui appartiennent au groupe des roches volcaniques. L'environment, l'âge, la forme, les structures internes, les textures, la composition minéralogique, les champs de gravité, les roches saliques associées et les effets de contact, caractéristiques de ces deux grandes classes d'anorthosites sont comparés, opposés et classés. Il y a certains plutons riches en anorthosite qui ont des caractères plus ou moins typiques des deux groupes. Une « série Anorthositique » est ainsi proposée:

Краткое содержание

Сравниваются интруз ивные тела Северной А мерики, западной Гренландии, западной Европы, Афри ки и Индии, вмещающие а нортозит, как главный или побочный минерал. Автор выделя ет два типа анортозита: 1) орогенно-плутоничес кий и 2) вулканический.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References cited

  1. Ayrton, S. N.: A contribution to the geological investigations in the region of Ivigtut, S. W. Greenland. - Medd. om Grønland, Bd.167, Nr. 3, 139 p., 1963.Google Scholar
  2. Baker, C. O. &Bott, M. H. P.: A gravity survey over the Freetown basic complex of Sierra Leone. - Overseas Geology and Mineral Resources, v.8, no. 3, p. 260–278, 1961.Google Scholar
  3. Balk, R.: Structural geology of the Adirondack anorthosite. - Mineral. u. Petrograph. Mitt., (Neue Folge), Bd.41, p. 308–434, Leipzig, 1931.Google Scholar
  4. Béland, R.: Geological report on the Rawdon area. - Quebec Dept. Mines, Geol. Rept.92, 1960.Google Scholar
  5. Berrangé, J. P.: The plutonic geology of part of the Grenville province north of Lake St. John, Quebec. - Univ. of London, Ph. D. thesis, unpub., 451 p., 1962.Google Scholar
  6. -: (In press.) Geology of the Antoine-La Trappe area, Roberval Co., Quebec. - Quebec Dept. Nat. Res., Geol. Rept.Google Scholar
  7. Berry, R. H. &Walton, M. S.: Origin of gneiss with anorthositic and charnockitic affinities, Putnam-Whitehall area, eastern Adirondacks, New York, p. 134 in Abstracts for 1961. - Geol. Soc. America Special Paper68, 322 p., 1962.Google Scholar
  8. Berthelsen, A.: An example of the structural approach to the migmatite problem, p. 149–157 in Barth, T. F. and Sørensen, H., Editors, pt. XIV, The granite-gneiss problem. - Internat. Geol. Cong., Rept. of the Twenty-first Session Norden, 215 p., 1960.Google Scholar
  9. -: Structural studies in the pre-Cambrian of western Greenland, II, Geology of Tovqussap Nunâ. - Medd. om Grønland, Bd.123, Nr. 1, 223 p., 1960 a.Google Scholar
  10. —: The structural evolution of an ultra- and polymetamorphic gneiss complex, West Greenland. - Geol. Rundsch., Bd.46, p. 173–185, 1957.Google Scholar
  11. Bondam, J.: Retrogradt omdannede gabbro-anorthositer fra Ferederikshaab Distrikt, Sydvest Grønland. - Second Nordic Geological Winter Meeting, Oslo, unpub. lecture, 1955.Google Scholar
  12. Bondesen, E.: Sermerssut-Tornarsuk amradets geologi. - Univ. Copenhagen, Magister thesis, unpub., 284 p., 1960.Google Scholar
  13. Boulanger, J.: Les anorthosites de Madagascar, - Annales Geol. de Madagascar, Fasc. XXVI, 71 p., 1959.Google Scholar
  14. —: Les anorthosites de Madagascar. - Comm. for Tech. Co-operation in Africa South of the Sahara, Conference de Tananarive, Premier Volume, p. 71–92, 1957.Google Scholar
  15. Bowen, N. L.: The evolution of the igneous rocks. - Dover Publns. Inc., 332 p., New York, 1956.Google Scholar
  16. —: The problem of the anorthosites. - Jour. Geology, v.25, p. 209–243, 1917.Google Scholar
  17. Bowes, D. R., Wright, A. E. &Park, R. G.: Layered intrusive rocks in the North-West Highlands of Scotland. - Geol. Soc. London Quart. Jour., v.120, p. 153–192, 1964.Google Scholar
  18. Buddington, A. F.: Isograds and the role of H2O in metamorphic facies of orthogneiss of the northwest Adirondack area, New York. - Geol. Soc. America Bull., v.74, 1155–1182, 1963.Google Scholar
  19. —: Granite emplacement with special reference to North America. - Geol. Soc. America Bull., vol.70, p. 671–747, 1959.Google Scholar
  20. -: Correlation of rigid units, types of folds and lineation in a Grenville belt, p. 99–119 in Thomson, J. E., Editor, The Grenville problem.-Royal Soc. Canada Special Publ. 1, 119 p., 1956.Google Scholar
  21. -: Adirondack igneous rocks and their metamorphism. - Geol. Soc. America Mem.7, 354 p., 1939.Google Scholar
  22. Coertze, F. J. &Schumann, F. W.: The basic portion and associated minerals of the Bushveld igneous complex north of Pilaansberg. - South African Dept. Mines, Geological Surv. Bull.38, 48 p., 1962.Google Scholar
  23. Crowell, J. C. &Walker, J. W. R.: Anorthosite and related rocks along the San Andreas fault, southern California. - California Univ., Dept. Geol. Sci. Bull., v.40, p. 219–288, 1962.Google Scholar
  24. Daly, R. A.: Igneous Rocks and the Depths of the Easth. - McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1933.Google Scholar
  25. Dearnley, R.: The Lewisian complex of south Harris; with some observations on the metamorphosed basic intrusions of the Outer Hebrides, Scotland. - Geol. Soc. London Quart. Journ., v.119, p. 243–312, 1963.Google Scholar
  26. Eckermann, Harry von: The anorthosite and kenningite of the Nordingrå-Rödö region. A contribution to the problems of the anorthosites. - Geol. Fören. Stockholm Förh. Bd.60, p. 243–284, 1938.Google Scholar
  27. Ellitsgaard-Rasmussen, K. &Mouritzen, M.: An anorthosite occurrence from West Greenland. - Medd. dansk geol. Foren., Bd.12, p. 436–442, 1954.Google Scholar
  28. Emslie, R. F.: Potassium-argon age of the Michikamau anorthosite intrusion, Labrador. - Nature, v.202, no. 4928, p. 172–173, 1964.Google Scholar
  29. Engel, A. E. J. &Engel, C. G.: Grenville series in the northwest Adirondack mountains, New York, Part 1, General Features of the Grenville series. - Geol. Soc. America Bull., v.64, p. 1013–1097, 1953.Google Scholar
  30. Fowler, K. S.: The anorthosite area of the Laramie mountains, Wyoming, Part II, Petrographic and structural discussion. - Am. Journ. Sci., 5th ser., v.19, p. 373–403, 1930.Google Scholar
  31. Goldich, S. S.,Nier, A. O.,Baadsgaard, H.,Hoffman, J. H. &Krueger, H. W.: The Precambrian geology and geochronology of Minnesota. - Univ. of Minnesota, Minnesota Geol. Surv. Bull.41, 193 p., 1961.Google Scholar
  32. Grout, F. F. &Schwartz, G. M.: The geology of the anorthosites of the Minnesota coast of Lake Superior. - Univ. of Minnesota, Minnesota, Geol. Surv. Bull.28, 119 p., 1939.Google Scholar
  33. Hall, A. L.: The Bushveld igneous complex of the central Transvaal. - Union of South Africa Geol. Surv., Mem. 28, 560 p., 1932.Google Scholar
  34. Hamilton, W.: Silicic differentiates of lopoliths, p. 59–67 in Oftedahl, C., and Hjelmqvist, S., Editors, pt. XIII, Petrographic provinces, igneous and metamorphic rocks. - Internat. Geol. Cong., Rept. of the Twenty-First Session Norden, 451 p., 1960.Google Scholar
  35. —: Precambrian rocks of Wichita and Arbuckle mountains, Oklahoma. - Geol. Soc. America Bull., v.67, p. 1319–1330, 1956.Google Scholar
  36. Hargraves, R. B.: Petrology of the Allard Lake anorthosite suite, Quebec, p. 163–189, in Engel, A. E., James, H. L., and Leonard, B. F., Editors, Petrologic studies. - Geol. Soc. America, Buddington Volume, 660 p., 1962.Google Scholar
  37. Harker, A.: The Tertiary igneous rocks of Skye. - Geol. Surv. Scotland, Memoir, 481 p., 1904.Google Scholar
  38. Harpum, J. R.: Intervention in Boulanger, J., 1957, Les anorthosites de Madagascar. - Comm. for Tech. Co-operation in Africa South of the Sahara, Conférence de Tananarive, Premier Volume, p. 71–92, 1957.Google Scholar
  39. Hess, H. H.: Stillwater igneous complex, Montana: A quantitative mineralogical study. - Geol. Soc. America, Mem. 80, 230 p., 1960.Google Scholar
  40. -: Serpentinites, orogeny and epeirogeny, p. 391–408 in Poldervaart, A., Editor, The crust of the earth. - Geol. Soc. America, Special Paper 62, 762 p., 1955.Google Scholar
  41. Hietanen, A.: Anorthosite and associated rocks in the Boehls Butte quadrangle and vicinity, Idaho. - Geol. Surv. America, Prof. Paper 344-B, 78 p., 1963.Google Scholar
  42. Higgs, D. W.: Anorthosite and related rocks of the San Gabriel mountains, southern California. - California Univ., Dept. Geol. Sci. Publ., v.30, p. 171–222, 1954.Google Scholar
  43. Howland, A. L.,Peoples, J. W. &Samson, E.: The Stillwater igneous complex and associated occurrences of nickel and platinum group metals. - Montana Bur. Mines and Geology, Misc. Contr. 7, 15 p., 1936.Google Scholar
  44. Jooste, R. F.: Bourget area. - Quebec Dept. of Mines, Geol. Rept. 78, 42 p., 1958.Google Scholar
  45. Kennedy, W. Q. &Anderson, E. M.: Crustal layers and the origin of magmas. - Bull. Vulcanol. Sér. II, Tome III, p. 23–82, 1938.Google Scholar
  46. Klugman, M. A.: Laramie anorthosite. - Geol. Soc. America Bull., v.71, abstract p. 1906, 1960.Google Scholar
  47. Kolderup, C. F. &Kolderup, N. H.: Geology of the Bergen arc system. - Bergens Museums Skrifter, Nr. 20, 137 p., 1940.Google Scholar
  48. Kranck, E. H.: The tectonic position of the anorthosites of eastern Canada. - Comm. géol. Finlande Bull. Nr. 196, p. 299–320, 1961.Google Scholar
  49. Mawdsley, J. B.: St. Urbain area, Charlevoix district, Quebec. - Geol. Surv. Canada, Mem. 152, 58 p., 1927.Google Scholar
  50. McQuillin, R. &Tuson, J.: Gravity measurements over the Rhum Tertiary plutonic complex. - Nature, v.199, no. 4900, p. 1276, 1963.Google Scholar
  51. Michot, J.: The anorthosite complex of Håland-Helleren. - Norsk Geol. Tidskr., Bd.41, p. 157–172, 1961.Google Scholar
  52. Michot, P.: La Géologie de la Catazone: Le Probleme des Anorthosites, La Palingenese Basique et la Tectonique Catazonal dans le Rogaland Meridional. - Internat. Geol. Gong., Twenty-first Session, Norden, Guide Book g, Guide de l'excursion A 9, 54 p., 1960.Google Scholar
  53. —: Anorthosites et anorthosites. - Bull. de l'Acad. Royale de Belgique, Classe des Sc., 5e série, T. XLI, p. 275–294, 1955.Google Scholar
  54. —: La couronne d'anorthosite hypersthénifère feuilletée et rubanée du massif anorthositique d'Egersund (Norvège). - Soc. géol. Belgique Ann., T. LXII, p. B 547-B 551, 1939.Google Scholar
  55. —: Les gisements d'ilménite dans la région d'Egersund et de Bjerkreim (Norvège). - Soc. géol. Belgique Ann., T. LXIII, p. B 80-B 83, 1939 a.Google Scholar
  56. Miller, A. H. &Innes, M. J. S.: Gravity in the Sudbury basin and vicinity. - Dominion Observatory Ottawa Pubs., v.18, p. 11–43, 1955.Google Scholar
  57. Morin, M.: Labrieville area. - Quebec Dept. of Mines, Prelim. Rept. 333, 8 p., 1956.Google Scholar
  58. Morse, S. A.: Mineral variation in the layered series of the Kiglapait intrusion, coast of Labrador, Canada: p. 208 in Abstracts for 1962. - Geol. Soc. America Special Paper 73, 355 p., 1963.Google Scholar
  59. —: Age of Labrador anorthosites. - Nature, v.203, p. 509–510, 1964.Google Scholar
  60. Naidu, P. R. J.: A layered complex in Sittampundi, Madras State, India, p. 116–123 in Heinrich, E. W. M., Editor, International Mineralogical Association, Third General Meeting, Papers and Proceedings. - Min. Soc. America, Special Paper No. 1, 332 p., 1963.Google Scholar
  61. Osborne, F. F.: Coronite, labradorite anorthosite and dykes of andesine anorthosite, New Glasgow, P. Q. - Royal Soc. Canada Trans., v.XLIII, ser. III, p. 85–112, 1949.Google Scholar
  62. Papezic, V. S.: Trace elements in anorthosites. - McGill Univ. Ph. D. thesis, unpublished, 1961.Google Scholar
  63. Pollet, J. D.: The geology and mineral resources of Sierra Leone. - Colonial Geol. and Mineral Resources, v.2, p. 3–28, 1951.Google Scholar
  64. Read, H. H.: The granite controversy. - Thomas Murby and Co., 430 p., London, 1957.Google Scholar
  65. Richey, J. E. &Thomas, H. H.: The geology of Ardnamurchan, North-West Mull and Coll. - Geol. Surv. Scotland, Memoir, 393 p., 1930.Google Scholar
  66. Rose, E. R.: Iron and titanium in the Morin anorthosite, Quebec. - Geol. Surv. Canada, paper 60-11, 12 p., 1960.Google Scholar
  67. Simmons, G.: Gravity survey and geological interpretation, northern New York. - Geol. Soc. America Bull., v.75, p. 81–98, 1964.Google Scholar
  68. Simpson, E. S. &Otto, J. D. T.: On the Pre-Cambrian anorthosite mass of Angola, p. 216–227 in Oftedahl, C., and Hjelmqvist, S., Editors, pt.XIII, Petrographic provinces, igneous and metamorphic rocks. - Internat. Geol. Cong., Rept. of the Twenty-first Session Norden, 451 p., 1960.Google Scholar
  69. Smith, C. H.: Bay of Island igneous complex, western Newfoundland. - Geol. Surv. Canada, Mem. 290, 132 p., 1958.Google Scholar
  70. Sørensen, H.: Anorthosite from Buksefjorden; West Greenland. - Medd. dansk geol. Fören., Bd.13, p. 31–41, 1955.Google Scholar
  71. Stewart, F. H. &Wager, L. R.: Gravity stratification in the Cuillin gabbro of Skye. - Geol. Mag., v.84, p. 374, 1947.Google Scholar
  72. Subramaniam, A. P.: Petrology of the anorthosite-gabbro mass at Kadavur, Madras, India. - Geol. Mag., v.93, p. 287–300, 1956.Google Scholar
  73. —: Mineralogy and petrology of the Sittampundi complex, Salem district, Madras State, India. - Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., v.67, p. 317–390, 1956 a.Google Scholar
  74. Taylor, R. B.: The Duluth gabbro complex, Duluth Minnesota, p. 42–66 in Schwartz, G. M., Editor, Guidebook for field trips, Minneapolis meeting, Geol. Soc. America, 1956.Google Scholar
  75. -: Geology of the Enger Tower area, Duluth, Minnesota, p. 67–90 in Schwartz, G. M., Editor, Guidebook for field trips, Minneapolis meeting, Geol. Soc. America, 1956 a.Google Scholar
  76. Thayer, T. P.: Some critical differences between alpine-type and stratiform peridotite-gabbro complexes, p. 247–259 in Oftedahl, C., and Hjelmqvist, S., Editors, pt. 13, Petrographic provinces, igneous and metamorphic rocks. - Internat. Geol. Cong., Rept. of the Twenty-First Session Norden, 451 p., 1960.Google Scholar
  77. Thiel, E.: Correlation of gravity anomalies with the Keweenawan geology of Wisconsin and Minnesota. - Geol. Soc. America Bull., v.67, p. 1079–1100, 1956.Google Scholar
  78. Thompson, L. D. G. &Garland, G. D.: Gravity measurements in Quebec (south of latitude 52∘ N).- Dominion Observatory Ottawa, Pubs., v,19, p. 111–167, 1957.Google Scholar
  79. Turner, F. J. &Verhoogen, J.: Igneous and metamorphic petrology. - 2nd edition, McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc., 694 p., New York 1960.Google Scholar
  80. Wadsworth, W. J.: The layered ultrabasic rocks of south-west Rhum, Inner Hebrides. - Royal Soc. London, Philosophical Trans., Ss. B, v.244, p. 21–64, 1961.Google Scholar
  81. -: The Kapalagulu layered intrusion of western Tanganyika, p. 108–115 in Heinrich, E. M., Editor, International Mineralogical Association, Third General Meeting, Papers and Proceedings. - Min. Soc. America, Special Paper No. 1, 332 p., 1963.Google Scholar
  82. Wager, L. R., Brown, G. M. &Wadsworth, W. J.: Types of igneous cumulates. - Jour. Pet., v.1, p. 73–85, 1960.Google Scholar
  83. Walton, M. &Dewaard, D.: Orogenic and stratigraphic development of the Precambrian of the Adirondack highlands, p. 258 in Abstracts for 1962. - Geol. Soc. America Special Paper 73, 225 p., 1963.Google Scholar
  84. Wells, M. K.: Structure and petrology of the Freetown layered basic complex of Sierra Leone. - Overseas Geology and Mineral Resources Bull., Supplement no. 4, 115 p., 1962.Google Scholar
  85. —: The structure and petrology of the hypersthene-gabbro intrusion, Ardnamurchan, Argyllshire. - Geol. Soc. London Quart. Jour., v.109, p. 367–397, 1953.Google Scholar
  86. Wheeler, E. P., jun.: Anorthosite-adamellite complex of Nain, Labrador. - Geol. Soc. America Bull., v.71, p. 1755–1762, 1960.Google Scholar
  87. —: Adamellite intrusive north of Davis Inlet, Labrador. - Geol. Soc. America Bull., v.66, p. 1031–1059, 1955.Google Scholar
  88. —: Anorthosite and associated rocks about Nain, Labrador. - Jour. Geol., v.50, p. 611–642, 1942.Google Scholar
  89. Wilson, H. D. B.: Structure of lopoliths, - Geol. Soc. America Bull., v.67, p. 289–300, 1956.Google Scholar
  90. Winkler, H. G. F. &von Platen, H.: Experimentelle Gesteinsmetamorphose III - Anatektische Ultrametamorphose kalkhaltiger Tone. - Geochim. et Cosmochim. Acta, v.18, p. 294–316, 1960.Google Scholar
  91. Worst, B. G.: The great dyke of Southern Rhodesia, Part 2 — Geophysical Observations. - Southern Rhodesia Surv. Bull., no. 47, p. 179–188, 1960Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Ferdinand Enke Verlag Stuttgart 1965

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jevan P. Berrangé
    • 1
  1. 1.Photogeological DivisionInstitute of Geological SciencesChessingtonEngland

Personalised recommendations