Journal of Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp 101–109 | Cite as

Gibberellins in apical shoot meristems of flowering and vegetative sugarcane

  • P. H. Moore
  • R. P. Pharis
  • M. Koshioka


Gibberellins A1, A3, iso-A3, A4, A19, A20, and A36 were identified by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring in apices of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids). Flowering apices (i.e., 2–4 cm panicle) contained 8–9 times more (estimated by bioassay) endogenous gibberellins A and iso-GA3 (ratio of 1:6:8, respectively; in total 51 ng g−1 fresh weight) than vegetative apices (6.4 ng g−1 fresh weight). Vegetative apices contained small but significant levels of GA19, which could not be detected in flowering apices; vegetative apices also contained approximately four times more of a GA36-like substance than flowering apices. Since the two apex types developed under the same photoperiod, the increased levels of GA and iso-GA3 and the reduced levels of GA19 and GA36-like substances are correlated with the flowering state rather than with photoperiod or photoperiod changes per se. Since there were relatively high levels of C19 GAs along with low levels of C20 GAs in flowering apices, and since the converse is true in vegetative apices, metabolism of C20 to C19 GAs may be enhanced in flowering apices.


Flowering State Gibberellin Saccharum Apical Shoot Meristem Shoot Meristem 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.





mass spectrometry


fresh weight


gas liquid chromatography


combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry




methyl ester-trimethylsilyl ether




selected ion monitoring


retention time


silica gel


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Crozier A, Kuo CC, Durley RC, Pharis RP (1970) The biological activities of 26 gibberellins in nine plant bioassays. Can J Bot 48:867–877Google Scholar
  2. Durley RC, Crozier A, Pharis RP, McLaughlin GE (1972) Chromatography of 33 gibberellins on a gradient eluted silica gel partition column. Phytochemistry 11:3029–3033Google Scholar
  3. Gaskin P, Gilmour SJ, Lenton JR, MacMillan J, Sponsel VM (1983) Endogenous gibberellins and kauranoids identified from developing grain and germinating seedlings of barley. J Plant Growth Regul 2:229–242Google Scholar
  4. Gianfagna T, Zeevaart JAD, Lusk WJ (1983) Effect of photoperiod on the metabolism of deuterium-labelled gibberellin A53 in spinach. Plant Physiol 72:86–89Google Scholar
  5. Glenn JL, Kuo CC, Durley RC, Pharis RP (1972) Use of insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidone for purification of plant extracts and chromatography of plant hormones. Phytochemistry 11:345–351Google Scholar
  6. Graebe JE, Hedden P, Gaskin P, MacMillan J (1974) Biosynthesis of gibberellins A12, A15, A24, A36 and A37 by a cell-free system fromCucurbita maxima. Phytochemistry 13:1433–1440Google Scholar
  7. Hedden P, Phinney BO, Heupel R, Fujii D, Cohen H, Gaskin P, MacMillan J, Graebe JE (1982) Hormones of young tassells ofZea mays. Phytochemistry 21:391–393Google Scholar
  8. Hoad GV, Pharis RP, Railton ID, Durley RC (1976) Activity of the aldehyde and alcohol of gibberellin A12 and A14, two derivatives of gibberellin A15 and four decomposition products of gibberellin A3 in 13 plant bioassays. Planta 130:113–120Google Scholar
  9. Jones MG, Metzger JD, Zeevaart JAD (1980) Fractionation of gibberellins in plant extracts by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Plant Physiol 65:218–221Google Scholar
  10. Kaufman PB, Ghosheh NS, Nakosteen L, Pharis RP, Durley RC, Morf W (1976) Analysis of native gibberellins in the internode, nodes, leaves and inflorescence of developingAvena plants. Plant Physiol 58:131–134Google Scholar
  11. Koshioka M, Harada J, Takeno K, Noma M, Sassa T, Ogiyama K, Taylor JS, Rood SB, Legge RL, Pharis RP (1983) Reversed-phase C18 high-performance liquid chromatography of acidic and conjugated gibberellins. J Chromatogr 256:101–115Google Scholar
  12. Koshioka M, Pharis RP, Moore PH (1984) Identification of gibberellins A4 and A36 in sugarcane apices by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring. Agric Biol Chem 48:2395–2396Google Scholar
  13. Kuhnle JA, Moore PH, Haddon WF, Fitch MM (1983) Identification of gibberellins from sugarcane plants. J Plant Growth Regul 2:59–71Google Scholar
  14. Kurogochi S, Murofushi N, Ota Y, Takahashi N (1979) Identification of gibberellins in the rice plant and quantitative changes of gibberellin A19 throughout its life cycle. Planta 146:185–191Google Scholar
  15. Metzger JD (1983) Role of endogenous plant growth regulators in seed dormancy ofAvena fatua. II. gibberellins. Plant Physiol 73:791–795Google Scholar
  16. Murakami Y (1968) A new rice seedling bioassay for gibberellins, “microdrop method,” and its use for testing of rice and morning glory. Bot Mag (Tokyo) 81:33–43Google Scholar
  17. Pryce RJ (1973) Decomposition of aqueous solutions of gibberellic acid upon autoclaving. Phytochemistry 12:507–514Google Scholar
  18. Rood SB, Pharis RP, Koshioka M, Major DJ (1983) Gibberellins and heterosis in maize. I. Endogenous gibberellin-like substances. Plant Physiol 71:639–644Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. H. Moore
    • 1
  • R. P. Pharis
    • 2
  • M. Koshioka
    • 2
  1. 1.UDSA/ARS, Experiment StationHawaiian Sugar Planters' AssociationAieaUSA
  2. 2.Plant Physiology Research Group, Department of BiologyUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

Personalised recommendations