Neohelicon

, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp 9–60 | Cite as

Uralic studies and the research of literatures in Uralic languages

  • Péter Domokos
Article
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Keywords

Mother Tongue World Literature Literary History National Literature Linguistic Relative 

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Bibliography

  1. 1.
    Collinder, Björn: Survey of the Uralic Languages. Uppsala, 1975. Hajdú Péter: Introduction to Uralic linguistics. Budapest, 1966. Bereczki Gábor: 25 Jahre Uralistik in Ungarn (Acta Linguistica, 1971), Joki, Aulis: Uralier und Indogermanen. Helsinki, 1973. Hajdú, Péter—Domokos Péter: Uráli nyelvrokonaink (Our linguistic relatives), Budapest, 1978.Google Scholar
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    We are thinking here primarily of a few publications which have appeared in journals or volumes. The authors are well-known linguists. Steinitz, Wolfgang: Der Parallelismus in der Finnisch-karelischen Volksdichtung. Helsinki, 1934. Lotz, János—Jakobson, Roman: Axioms of a Versification System Exemplified by the Mordvinian Folksong (Acta Instituti Hungarici Universitatis Holmiensis. Stockholm, 1952). Austerlitz, Robert: Obi-Ugric Metrics. Helsinki. 1934. Sebeok, A. Thomas: Decoding a Text—Levels and Aspects in a Cheremis Sonnet (in: Style in Language. New York-London, 1960). Gáldi László: Contributions à une typologie de la versification finnoougrienne. (Ural-Altaische Jarhbücher, 1965.)Google Scholar
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    For a more detailed discussion of this problem see Hajdú Péter: Uráli vagy finnugor? (Uralic or Finno-Ugrian?). Magyar Tudomány, 1973, Vol. 7–8.Google Scholar
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    “Den Namen Finno-ugristik gebrauche ich — trotz neulich lautgewordenen andersartigen Deutungen — nur zur Bezeichnung der finnisch-ugrischen Sprachwissenschaft” — note for ex. György Lakó in his lecture entitled: “Mittel und Wege in den finnisch-ugrischen Wissenschaften”. (in: Congressus Quartus Internationalis Fenno-Ugristarum. Budapest, 1975, Pars I. p. 19.)Google Scholar
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    The volume entitled Ancient Cultures of the Uralian Peoples, edited by Péter Hajdú (Budapest, 1976) with its four main subjects: 1. Linguistics. 2. Archeology and anthropology. 3. Material culture. 4. Folk art and mythology, tries to satisfy this demand, at least in part. The book has appeared in Hungarian, Finnish and English, its French translation is in progress.Google Scholar
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    For the clarification of this question, see: Hajdú, Péter — The Samoyed Peoples and Languages. Bloomington — The Hague, 1963.Google Scholar
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    Some examples: Finnugor Nyelvtudományi Tanszék (Budapest, Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem) Suomalais-Ugrilaisten Kielten Oppituoli (Helsingin Yliopisto) Soome-Ugri Keelte Kateedri (Tartu Riiklik Ülikool) Finnisch-Ugrisches Seminar der Georg-August Universität zu Göttingen Seminariet för finsk-ugriska språk vid Lunda universitetGoogle Scholar
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    Finnisch-Ugrische Forschungen. Helsinki Etudes Finno-Ougriennes. Paris-BudapestGoogle Scholar
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    “Finno-Ugrian studies is the complex union of the sciences dealing with the common language, ethnography, folklore, folk music, history, prehistory, anthropology and literature of the Finno-Ugrian (Finnish, Estonian, Lapp, Mordvinian, Cheremissian, Zyrian, Votyak, Vogul, Ostyak and Samoyede) peoples who are the ancient relatives of the Hungarian language, people and culture”, writes János Gulya in his article entitled “For the propagation of knowledge about Finno-Ugrian science” (in Hungarian, in: Nyelvi Ismeretterjesztés, Bp., 1976. p. 9).Google Scholar
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    Virtaranta, Pertti has a different view of the matter: “Die Anfänge der wissenschaftlichen Beschäftigung mit der Fenno-Ugristik gehen zurück ins 17. Jahrhundert; es war der Hamburger Arzt und Polyhistor Martin Fogel, der als einer der ersten die Verwandtschaft der finnischen, lappischen und ungarischen Sprache bemerkte ...” (in: Mélanges offerts à Aurelien Sauvageot soixante-quinzième anniversaire. Budapest, 1972, p. 295).Google Scholar
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    A more recent German translation appeared in Wiesbaden in 1972: “Beweis, dass die Sprache der Ungarn und Lappen dieselbe ist”.Google Scholar
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    In this regard the most recent data can be found in the following works: Harald Haarmann unter Mitarbeit von Anna-Liisa Värri-Haarmann: Die finnisch-ugrischen Sprachen. Soziologische und politische Aspekte innerer Entwicklung. Hamburg, 1974. Péter Hajdú: Finno-Ugrian Languages and Peoples. London, 1975.Google Scholar
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    The complete and detailed survey of uralic studies, taking into account complexity and internationalism, has yet to be written. Even the study of the various treatises, textbooks and bibliographies will not give a complete and comprehensive picture. Péter Hajdú's work mentioned in note 19, gives a concise reliable survey that rises above national points of view.Google Scholar
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    The classic of this field is Julius Krohn's work: Suomen suvun pakanallinen jumalanpalvelus. (Pagan Rituals of the Finno-Ugrian Peoples) Helsinki, 1894.Google Scholar
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    Among the undertakings of grand scope, we can mention the Asian expedition of the Hungarian count Jenő Zichy: For the most essential achievements see under his name: Third Asian Expedition. I–V., Székesfehérvá, 1900–1905.Google Scholar
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    We point out only a few works to illustrate the rich literature that could be mentioned here: Емельянов А. И.: Грамматика вотяцкого языка. Ленинград, 1927. Сидоров А. С.: Знахарство, колдовство и порча у народа коми. Ленинград, 1928. Евсевьев М. Е.: Мордовская свадьба. Ленинград, 1931. Васильев В. М.: Материалы по поэтике на марийском языке. Казань, 1930.Google Scholar
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    Notably, the finnish work of several volumes which was written with the collaboration of several authors, the “Suomen suku” (Relatives of the Finns) I–III., Helsinki, 1926–1934, or the work by the Hungarian Miklós Zsirai.Finnugor rokonságunk (Our Finno-Ugrian Relatives) Budapest, 1937.Google Scholar
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    For a brief discussion of these congresses, see: Ortutay, Gyula: The International Significance of Finno-Ugric Research (in Hungarian). in: Magyar Tudomány 1960. p. 733. The material of the congresses is contained in some of the volumes of the series entitled “Fenno-Ugrica”.Google Scholar
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    Here, we can refer only to a few characteristic works: Lewy, Ernst: Der Bau der europäischen Sprachen. Dublin, 1942. Collinder, Björn: Indo-uralisches Sprachgut. Uppsala, 1934. Sauvageot, Aurélien: Eskimo et Ouralien. (Journal de la Société des Américanistes de Paris, 1924.)Google Scholar
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    In 1927 the 7th edition of József Szinnyei's Work “Hungarian Comparative Linguistics” was published. This was the official textbook of comparative Finno-Ugrian Linguistics in Hungarian universities. A better written German version of the book is: “Finnisch-ugrische Sprachwissenschaft (Berlin-Leipzig, 1922) enjoyed an outstanding reputation for a long as an international manual of the profession.Google Scholar
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    We are thinking primarily of descriptive grammars, dictionaries and language texbooks of which we point out a few: Упымарий (В. М. Васильев): Марий мутэр. Моско, 1928. Майшев И. И.: Грамматика коми-пермяцкого языка. Москва—Ленинград, 1940. Чернецов В. Н. — Чернецова И. Я.: Краткий мансийско-русский словарь с приложением грамматическояо очерка. Москва—Ленинград, 1936. Горохов П. Д.: Учебник удмуртского языка. Ижевск, 1929.Google Scholar
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    The most detailed information about the lectures at the Congresses are contained in the following volumes: Congressus Internationalis Fenno-Ugristarum Budapestini habitus 20–24. IX. 1960. (Budapest, 1963). Congressus Secundus Internationalis Fenno-Ugristarum Helsingiae habitus 23–28. VIII. 1965. Pars I. Acta Lingustica, Helsinki, 1967; Pars II. Acta Ethnologica, Helsinki, 1968. Congressus Tertius Internationalis Fenno-Ugristarum Tallinae habitus 17–23. VIII. 1970: Pars. I. Acta Linguistica. Tallinn. 1975., Pars II. (before publication) Congressus Quartus Internationalis Fenno-Ugristarum Budapestini habitus anno 1975: Pars I. Acta Sessionum. Budapest 1975, (before the publication of the five volumes of the Congress)Google Scholar
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    Due to the great number of works on Uralic literatures in Hungarian, Finnish and Estonian, manuals, textbooks, bibliographies, year-books, memorial volumes, journals and incidental publications, we cannot mention them here. We will merely note that the great majority of achievements in Uralic studies from the birth of the science to our day are contained in the publications not listed. Familiarity with them is a prerequisite to understanding Uralic studies and also to knowledge of one of the “great” Uralic languages (or at least one of them.)Google Scholar
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    Unfortunately, there are very few reliable bibliographies in this field. Most of the relevant works generally follow the fate and reception the literature concerned only in a single language territory. A rare exception is Sulo Haltsonen's work: Suomalaista kaunokirjallisuutta vierailla kielillä. (Finnish Literature in Foreign Languages), Helsinki, 1961, which traces the propagation of Finnish literature throughout Europe and beyond.Google Scholar
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    Miklós Zsirai lists a few writers and poets of the smaller Uralic peoples (see his work mentioned in note 28). As examples suitable for linguistic textual analysis, T. E. Uotila quotes a few poems of I. Kuratov and Ilya Vas (V. Litkin in his university handbook, Syrjänische Chrestomathie mit grammatikalischm Abriss und ethymologischem Wörterverzeichniss. Helsinki, 1938.Google Scholar
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    We cannot even come close to making a complete list of the works worthy of mention. Therefore, we will mention only the most important (and most current) literary historical works, and basic anthologies —according to the people. The titles (and circulation if known of periodicals (or weeklies) written in the national language are listed as follows: Karyala—Finnish literature: Очерк истории советской литературы Карелии. Петрозаводск, 1969., Писатели Карелии. Справочник. Петрозаводск, 1971., Летопись литературной жизни Карелии (1917–1961) Петрозаводск, 1963., Антология Карельской поэзии. Петрозаводск, 1963., Озеро шумит. Рассказы карело-финских писателей. Москва. 1973., Punalippu (monthly literary journal of 10,500 copies). Mordvinian literature: История мордовской советской литературы I–III. Саранск, 1968–1974., Писатели Советской Мордовии. Биобиблиографический спра-вочник, Саранск, 1970., Здравствуй, жизнь! Стихи мордовских поэтов. Саранск, 1966., Рассвет. Рассказы. Саранск, 1970., Мокша (bi-monthly literary periodical in Moksha-Mordvinian of about 2200 c.), Сятко (bimonthly literary journal in Erza-Mordvinian of about 2400 c.) Mari literature: Очерки истории марийской литературы I–II. Йошкар-Ола, 1960–1963., Писатели Марийской АССР. Йошкар-Ола, 1976., Антология марийской прозы (Солнце над лесами), поэзии (Солоыиный родник) драматургии (Радуга над Волгой I–III,). Йошкар-Ола, 1970., Ончыко: (bi-monthly literary journal of about 13500 c.) Komi literature: Коми советские писатели. Сыктывкар, 1968., Писатели Коми АССР. Сыктывкар, 1970., Коми писательяслон рассказьяс. Сыктывкар, 1954., Коми поэзия антология. Сыктывкар, 1967., Войвыв кодзув (monthly literary journal, 7000 copies) Permyak literature: Писатели пермской области. Пермь, 1962., Утро Пармы. Избранная коми-пермяцкая проза. Кудымкар, 1974., Песня оло сьоломын. Кудымкар, 1974., Иньва (literary historical publication similar to a yearbook, 1000 copies) Udmurt literature: Удмурт литература. Ижевск, 1966., Писатели Удмуртии. Ижевск, 1963., К. Н. Дзюина: Удмуртская книга 1917–1974. Ижевск, 1976., Рассказы удмуртских писателей. Ижевск, 1955., Стихи удмуртских поэтов. Ижевск, 1957., Молот (monthly literary journal, 16 500 copies) Obi-Ugrian (Mansi and Khanti) literature: М. Г. Воскобойников: Литература народоб Крайнего Севера за 25 лет (in: В помошь учителю школ Крайнего Севера, вьш. 6. Ленинград, 1956.), Л Полонский: Литературы, рожденные Октябрем. (О творчестве писателей Обского Севера) Тюмень, 1967., Хантейская и мансийская поэзия. Омск, 1940., 30 тал ат по Тюмень, 1961., Ленин пант хуват (Chanti language weekly with an occasional literary column) Nenets literature: Л. Полонский: Из истории ненецкой литературы. Тюмень, 1961., Писатели Среднего Урала. Биобиблиографический справочник. Свердловск, 1965., Ямальские зори. Тюмень, 1966., Нярьяна нгэрм (Nenetz language weekly with an occasional literary column)Google Scholar
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    История советской многонациональной литературы I–VI. Москва, 1970–1974. (The entire 6th volume is a bibliography, the most comprehensive compendium of the literatures of the Soviet nationalities.)Google Scholar
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    Вопросы советского финноугроведения (Тезисы докладов) I–II. Петрозаводск, 1974.Google Scholar
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    Hajdú, Péter: Linguistic Background of Genetic Relationships (in: Ancient ... see note 5.) The volume entitled Ancient Cultures of the Uralian Peoples, edited by Péter Hajdú (Budapest, 1976) with its four main subjects: 1. Linguistics. 2. Archeology and anthropology. 3. Material culture. 4. Folk art and mythology, tries to satisfy this demand, at least in part. The book has appeared in Hungarian, Finnish and English, its French translation is in progress.Google Scholar
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    Mészöly, Gedeon: Ómagyar szövegek nyelvtörténeti magyarázatokkal. (Texts in Old Hungarian with Linguistic-Historical Explanations.) Budapest, 1956.; Képes, Géza: A magyar őstörténet nyomairól. (From the Traces of Ancient Hungarian Poetry.) in Hung. in: The contours of time. Studies on ancient and modern poetry, Budapest, 1976.Google Scholar
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    Hajdu, Péter: Chrestomathia Samoiedica. Budapest, 1968.Google Scholar
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    One of the first — cautious — attempts at grouping the lyrical poetry of the Uralic peoples according by to territory and typology: Péter Domokos: treatise entitled: Finno-Ugrian Folk Poetry. (in: Ancient ... see note 5.) The volume entitled Ancient Cultures of the Uralian Peoples, edited by Péter Hajdú (Budapest, 1976) with its four main subjects: 1. Linguistics. 2. Archeology and anthropology, 3. Material culture. 4. Folk art and mythology, tries to satisfy this demand, at least in part. The book has appeared in Hungarian, Finnish and English, its French translation is in progress.Google Scholar
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    Domokos, Péter: Soome-ugri rahvastefolkloor ja kirjandus Ungaris. (Finno-Ugrian Folkpoetry and Literature in Hungary.) (Keelja kirjandus, 1968.) (For further information see note 59.) Domokos, Péter: A finn irodalom fogadtatása Magyarországon. (The reception of Finnish Literature in Hungary.) Budapest, 1972. Weöres, Gyula: Suomalainen unkari-kirjallisuus 1863–1967. (Hungarian Literature in Finnish Language.) (Publicationes Instituti Hungarici Universitatis Helsingiensis 2.) Helsinki, 1969. Radó, György: Az észt irodalom Magyarországon Estonian literature in Hungary. 1963.) Toming, Mary: A magyar irodalom fogadtatása Észtországban. (The Reception of Hungarian literature in Estonia.) (Tiszatáj, 1976. 9.) Jávori, Jenő: A finnugor népek irodalmának bibliográfiája. (Bibliography of the literature of the Finno-Ugrian peoples.) Szabó Ervin Könyvtár, Budapest, 1975. Radó, György: A Szovjetunió uráli és türk népeinek irodalma Magyarországon. (The literature of the Uralic and Turkic peoples of the Soviet Union in Hungary.) Budapest, 1976. Ф. К. Ермаков: Удмуртская литература за рубежом. (in: Записки УдНИИ., вьш. 21. Ижевск, 1970.) А. Туркин: Комияслон финньяскод, культурной йитодьяс. (Войвыв кодзув, 1976. 9.)Google Scholar
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    An example of this is the 1922 Udmurt epic of Mihail Hudjakov to which reference is often made but has not been published yet. Domokos, Peter: Az udmurt eposzról. (On the Udmurt Epic.) (Néprajz és Nyelvtudomány, 1971–1972.)Google Scholar
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    П. Берков: К спорам о судьбах языков и литератур “малых” народов. (in: Пути развития советской многонациональной литературы Москва, 1967.)Google Scholar
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    For example, the Mansi Andrei Tarhanov, and the Nenets Aleksei Pichkov write in Russian, yet literary history considers them manysi of nyenyec poets.Google Scholar
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    Paul Ariste: Vadjalaste laule. Tallinn, 1960.; Väinö Salminen: Kertovien runojen historiaa inkeri. Helsinki, 1929., Бытовые рассказы энцев. Москва, 1962., Прокофьев Г. Н.: Нганасанский (тавгийский) диалект. (in: Языки и письменность народов Севера, ч. І. Москва—Ленинград, 1937.)Google Scholar
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    Sziklay, László: A kelet-európai összehasonlító irodalomtörténetírás néhány elvi kérdéséről. (On a few theoretical questions concerning the comparative literary historiography of Eastern Europe.) in: Sziklay László: Szomszédainkról. (On Our Neighbours.) Budapest, 1974.Google Scholar
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    Estonian literature. Historical survey with bibliographical appendix. Tallinn, 1970.Google Scholar
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    The more recent Estonian literary histories (see note 93) include even emigrant Estonian writers in the history of literature. Their best works are published again and again.Google Scholar
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    Kaarina Kotiranta: Amerikansuomalaisen kirjallisuuden yhteisluettelo. (The Bibliography of the American Finns.) Helsinki, 1970.Google Scholar
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    Béládi, Miklós: A nyugati magyar irodalomról. (On Hungarian Literature in the West.) (in: Nyelvünk és kultúránk. [Our Language and Culture.) (See note 38.) Nyugati magyar irodalom. (Hungarian Literature in the West.) Amsterdam, 1976.Google Scholar
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    Гришкина М. В.: О распространении грамотности среди удмуртов в XVII–XVIII веках (in: 200 лет... See note 53.) 200 лет Удмуртскойписьменности. Ижевск, 1976.Google Scholar
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    Gulya, János: Egy 1736-ból származó manysi nyelvemlék. (A linguistic record of the vogul language dating from 1736.) (in: Nyelvtudományi Közlemények, 1958.)Google Scholar
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    Романенко Д.: Рождение романа. Становление и развитие романа в младописъменных литературах Российской Федераџии. Москва, 1970.Google Scholar
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    Эйно Карху: В краю “Калевалы”. (Критический очерк о современной литературе Карелии) Москва, 1974.Google Scholar
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    Skabmatolak. Sabmelaš kirjjalašvuoda antologiija. (Lapp Literary Anthology.) Helsinki, 1974.Google Scholar
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    See the literary column entitled Nuorttanaste of the Norwegian Lapp Newspaper.Google Scholar
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    Kettunen, Lauri: Suomen heimon kirja. (The book of the Finnish Homeland.) Porvoo, 1931., Mägiste, Julius: Liiviläisiä tekstejä. (Livonian Texts.) Helsinki, 1964., Kettunen, Lauri: Liiviläisten kansallistunto. (The National Consciousness of the Livonian.) (Kalevalaseuran Vuosikirja. 1925.)Google Scholar
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    Stalte, Karl: Livō lōlōd. Tallinn, 1924. See also five parts of the anthology entitled “Liivi lugemik” published in Tartu between 1921 and 1926, as well as the literary column of the weekly entitled Livli mimeographed in Mazirbe in Latvia between 1931 and 1939.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Péter Domokos

There are no affiliations available

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