Advertisement

Virtual Reality

, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp 3–15 | Cite as

The effect of update rate on the sense of presence within virtual environments

  • Woodrow Barfield
  • Claudia Hendrix
Human Factors

Abstract

The current study was done to investigate the effect of varying the update rate of a computer-generated simulation (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 Hz) on the sense of presence within stereoscopic virtual environments. Thirteen subjects navigated a virtual representation of Stonehenge and were asked to search for a rune, inscribed upon the wall of one of Stonehenge's edifices. After performing the search task, subjects completed a questionnaire designed to assess their level of presence within the virtual environment. The results indicated that the subjective report of presence within the virtual environment was significantly less using an update rate of 5 and 10 Hz when compared to update rates of 20 and 25 Hz. Furthermore, the reported level of presence using a 15 Hz update rate was similar to the reported level of presence using update rates of 20 and 25 Hz thus indicating that computational resources could be saved using a slower update rate while maintaining a given level of presence. In addition, a factor analysis procedure indicated that the 13 questions designed to assess the subjects sense of presence within virtual Stonehenge could be grouped into three factors: (1) virtual presence, (2) navigation within the virtual environment, and (3) knowledge of real world surroundings while in the virtual world. Finally, comments on a descriptive model of presence within virtual environments are presented.

Keywords

immersion presence update rate virtual environments 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Airey, J.M., Rohlf, J.H. and Brooks, F., (1990). Towards Image Realism with Interactive Update Rates in Complex Virtual Building Environments,Computer Graphics 24: 41–50.Google Scholar
  2. Barfield, W. and Weghorst, S., (1993). The Sense of Presence Within Virtual Environments: A Conceptual Framework, inHuman Computer Interaction: Software and Hardware Interfaces, (Eds.) G. Salvendy and M. Smith, Elsevier Publisher, 699–704.Google Scholar
  3. Barfield, W., Sheridan, T., Zeltzer, D. and Slater, M., (1995). Presence and Performance within Virtual Environments, inVirtual Environments and Advanced Interface Design, (Eds.) W. Barfield and T. Furness III, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Barfield, W., Rosenberg, C. and Lotens, W., (1995). Augmented-Reality Displays, inVirtual Environments and Advanced Interface Design, (Eds.) W. Barfield and T. Furness III, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Foley, J., Van Dam, A., Feiner, S.K., Hughes, J.F. and Phillips, R.L., (1994).Introduction to Computer Graphics, Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  6. Hendrix, C. and Barfield, W., (1995a). Ego-presence within Virtual Environments as a function of Visual Display Parameters, accepted for publicationPresence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments.Google Scholar
  7. Hendrix, C. and Barfield, W., (1995b). Presence as a Function of Auditory Cues, accepted for publicationPresence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments.Google Scholar
  8. Lampton, D.R., Knerr, B.W. and Goldberg, S.L., (1994). The Virtual Environment Performance Assessment Battery (VEPAB): Development and Evaluation,Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 3(2): 145–157.Google Scholar
  9. McKenna, M.D. and Zeltzer, D., (1992). Three Dimensional Visual Display Systems for Virtual Environments,Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 1(4): 421–458.Google Scholar
  10. Piantanida, T., Boman, D.K. and Gille, J., (1993). Human Perceptual Issues and Virtual Reality,Virtual Reality Systems, Applications and Research 1(1): 43–52, March.Google Scholar
  11. Sheridan, T.B., (1992a). Musings on Telepresence and Virtual Presence,Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 1(1): 120–125.Google Scholar
  12. Sheridan, T.B., (1992b). Defining our Terms,Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 1(2): 272–274.Google Scholar
  13. Slater, M. and Usoh, M., (1994). Representations Systems, Perceptual Position, and Presence in Immersive Virtual Environments,Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 2(3): 221–233.Google Scholar
  14. Slater, M. and Usoh, M., (1993). Presence in Immersive Virtual Environments,IEEE Virtual Reality International Symposium, 90–96.Google Scholar
  15. Slater, M., Usoh, M., and Steed, A., (1994). Depth of Presence in Virtual Environments,Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 3(2): 130–144.Google Scholar
  16. Slater M., Steed, A. and Usoh, M., (1993). The Virtual Treadmill: A Naturalistic Metaphor for Navigating in Immersive Virtual Environments, in M. Goebel (Ed.),Proceedings of the Eurographics Workshop on Virtual Reality, Barcelona, September.Google Scholar
  17. Tharp, G. and Liu, A., (1993). Timing Considerations of Helmet Mounted Display Performance,SPIE Vol. 1666, Human Vision, Visual Processing, and Digital Display III 570–576.Google Scholar
  18. Weghorst, S. and Billinghurst, M., (1993). Spatial Perception of Immersive Virtual Environments,HIT Lab Technical Report, University of Washington.Google Scholar
  19. Zeltzer, D., (1992). Autonomy, Interaction, and Presence,Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 1(1): 127–132.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Virtual Press Ltd 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Woodrow Barfield
    • 1
  • Claudia Hendrix
    • 1
  1. 1.Sensory Engineering Laboratory Department of Industrial Engineering, FU-20University of WashingtonSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations