Broad bean mottle virus: Identification, host range, serology, and occurrence on faba bean (Vicia faba) in West Asia and North Africa

Abstract

One of the faba bean viruses found in West Asia and North Africa was identified as broad bean mottle virus (BBMV) by host reactions, particle morphology and size, serology, and granular, often vesiculated cytoplasmic inclusions. Detailed research on four isolates, one each from Morocco, Tunisia, Sudan and Syria, provided new information on the virus.

The isolates, though indistinguishable in ELISA or gel-diffusion tests, differed slightly in host range and symptoms. Twenty-one species (12 legumes and 9 non-legumes) out of 27 tested were systemically infected, and 14 of these by all four isolates. Infection in several species was symptomless, but major legumes such as chickpea, lentil and especially pea, suffered severely from infection. All 23 genotypes of faba bean, 2 of chickpea, 4 of lentil, 11 out of 21 ofPhaseolus bean, and 16 out of 17 of pea were systemically sensitive to the virus. Twelve plant species were found to be new potential hosts and cucumber a new local-lesion test plant of the virus.

BBMV particles occurred in faba bean plants in very high concentrations and seed transmission in this species (1.37%) was confirmed.

An isolate from Syria was purified and two antisera were produced, one of which was used in ELISA to detect BBMV in faba bean field samples. Two hundred and three out of the 789 samples with symptoms suggestive of virus infection collected in 1985, 1986 and 1987, were found infected with BBMV: 4 out of 70 (4/70) tested samples from Egypt, 0/44 from Lebanon, 1/15 from Morocco, 46/254 from Sudan, 72/269 from Syria and 80/137 from Tunisia. This is the first report on its occurrence in Egypt, Syria and Tunisia. The virus is a potential threat to crop improvement in the region.

Samenvatting

Eén van de in West-Azië en Noord-Afrika in faba-boon aangetroffen virussen werd geïdentificeerd als het tuinbonevlekkenvirus (‘broad bean mottle virus’) op grond van waardplantreacties, deeltjesvorm en-grootte, serologische eigenschappen en granulaire, vaak ‘gevacuoliseerde’ celinsluitsels. Verder onderzoek aan vier isolaten uit respectievelijk Marokko, Tunesië, Soedan en Syrië verschafte nieuwe informatie, over het virus.

De in ELISA of gel-diffusietoetsen serologisch niet te onderscheiden isolaten verschilden enigszins in waardplantenreeks en symptomen. Van 27 getoetste plantesoorten werden 21 systemisch geïnfecteerd (12 vlinderbloemigen, en 9 niet-vlinderbloemigen) waarvan 14 door alle vier isolaten. In vele ervan was de infectie symptoomloos, maar belangrijke als gewas geteelde vlinderbloemigen, zoals erwt, linzen en kekererwt, leden ernstig onder aantasting. Alle 23 getoetste faba-boongenotypen, beide van kekererwt, alle vier van linzen, 11 van de 21 getoetste vanPhaseolus-boon en 16 van de 17 van erwt bleken systemisch gevoelig voor het virus. Twaalf plantesoorten, bleken nieuwe potentiële waardplanten en komkommer een nieuwe lokale-lesietoetsplant voor het virus te zijn.

In faba-boneplanten kwam, het virus in hoge concentratie voor en overdracht met zaad (1.37%) in deze soort kon worden bevestigd.

Een Syrisch isolaat werd gezuiverd en twee antisera werden bereid, waarvan één werd gebruikt voor de detectie van het virus in te velde verzamelde monsters. Van 789 in 1985 tot en met 1987 verzamelde bladmonsters, met symptomen die deden denken aan virusinfectie, bleken 203 het virus te bevatten en wel 4 van de 70 (4/70) uit Egypte, 0/44 uit Libanon, 1/15 uit Marokko, 46/254 uit Soedan, 72/269 uit Syrië en 80/137 uit Tunesië. Het virus was nog niet eerder aangetoond in Egypte, Syrië en Tunesië.

De grote verbreiding, grote kunstmatige waardplantenreeks, overdracht met zaad, en pathogeniteit voor een aantal belangrijke vlinderbloemige gewassen maken het virus tot een potentiële bedreiging van de programma's tot verbetering van de teelt van de bedoelde gewassen in het betrokken gebied.

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Makkouk, K.M., Bos, L., Rizkallah, A. et al. Broad bean mottle virus: Identification, host range, serology, and occurrence on faba bean (Vicia faba) in West Asia and North Africa. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology 94, 195–212 (1989). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02006546

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Additional keywords

  • chickpea
  • ecology
  • electron microscopy
  • ELISA
  • inclusion bodies
  • lentil
  • pea
  • Phaseolus bean
  • seed transmission