Broad bean stain virus: Identification, detectability with ELISA in faba bean leaves and seeds, occurrence in West Asia and North Africa, and possible wild hosts

Abstract

During a survey of faba bean viruses in West Asia and North Africa a virus was identified as broad bean stain virus (BBSV) based on host reactions, electron microscopy, physical properties and serology. An antiserum to a Syrian isolate was prepared. With this antiserum the direct double antibody sandwich ELISA (DAS-ELISA) and dot-ELISA were very sensitive in detecting BBSV in leaf extracts, ground whole seeds and germinated embryos. Sensitivity was not reduced when the two-day procedure was replaced by a one-day procedure. Using ELISA the virus was detected in 73 out of 589 faba bean samples with virus-like symptoms collected from Egypt (4 out of 70 samples tested), Lebanon (6/44), Morocco (0/7), Sudan (19/254), Syria (36/145) and Tunisia (8/69). This is the first report of BBSV infection of faba bean in Lebanon, Sudan, Syria and Tunisia. Fourteen wild legume species indigenous to Syria were susceptible to BBSV infection, with only two producing obvious symptoms. The virus was found to be seed transmitted inVicia palaestina.

Samenvatting

Tijdens een inventarisatie van virussen in veld- of tuinbonen (Vicia faba) in het Midden-Oosten en Noord-Afrika werden virusisolaten verkregen, die op grond van toetsplantreacties en fysische eigenschappen en van elektronenmicroscopische en serologische waarnemingen werden herkend als het met zaad overgaande en door snuitkevers verspreide tuinbonezaadvlekkenvirus (broad bean stain virus).

Met een nieuw antiserum, gemaakt tegen een Syrisch isolaat, bleek de aantoonbaarheid van het virus in bladextracten, vermalen zaden en gekiemde embryo's erg hoog te zijn, zowel bij toepassing van DAS-ELISA als dot-ELISA. De gevoeligheid van de methode werd niet geringer wanneer de procedure werd bekort van twee dagen tot één dag.

Met ELISA werd het virus aangetoond in 73 van de 589 bladmonsters van veldboon, met symptomen die deden denken aan virusinfectie, verzameld in Egypte, Libanon, Marokko, Soedan, Syrië en Tunesië. Het virus werd aangetroffen in monsters uit alle genoemde landen behalve Marokko, maar het aantal uit dat land afkomstige monsters was slechts gering. Dit is de eerste maal dat het virus wordt gerapporteerd in Libanon, Soedan, Syrië en Tunesië.

Veertien wilde soorten vlinderbloemigen uit Syrië bleken bij toetsing door inoculatie vatbaar voor infectie. Slechts twee ervan vertoonden symptomen. Het virus kan dus onzichtbaar voorkomen in de wilde vegetatie. InVicia palaestina ging het zelfs over met zaad.

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The project was financially supported by the Directorate General for International Cooperation (DGIS, Research and Technology Programme) of the Netherlands Minister for Development Cooperation.

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Makkouk, K.M., Bos, L., Azzam, O.I. et al. Broad bean stain virus: Identification, detectability with ELISA in faba bean leaves and seeds, occurrence in West Asia and North Africa, and possible wild hosts. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology 93, 97–106 (1987). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02000560

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Keywords

  • Sudan
  • Faba Bean
  • Broad Bean
  • Double Antibody Sandwich
  • Bean Sample