Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 92, Issue 4, pp 153–162 | Cite as

Nitrite as a factor in the decline of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi in soil supplemented with urea or ammonium chloride

  • H. J. M. Löffler
  • E. B. Cohen
  • G. T. Oolbekkink
  • B. Schippers
Article

Abstract

Addition of 1 g urea or NH4Cl per kg dry soil (0.1%) reduced the population ofFusarium oxysporum f. sp.dianthi in one of two soils tested. Ammonia does not seem to be the responsible factor since it accumulated similarly in both soils upon addition of NH4Cl or urea. Addition of Nitrapyrine in combination with 0.1% urea or NH4Cl increased ammonia concentrations in soil but decreased the population-declining effect. Addition of nitrate in amounts corresponding to those measured after decomposition of urea in soil had no effect on population development. Addition of nitrite in amounts corresponding to those measured during decomposition of urea in soil decreased the population ofF. oxysporum f. sp.dianthi. In vitro, nitrite inhibited chlamydospore formation. Upon addition of 0.1% urea, nitrite accumulated 10 to 100 times more in the susceptible soil than in the not-susceptible soil. It is concluded that nitrite rather then ammonia is responsible for the decline effect of ammonia-generating compounds on populations ofF. oxysporum f. sp.dianthi in soil.

Samenvatting

Toevoeging van 0.1% ureum of 0.1% NH4Cl verminderde de populatie vanF. oxysporum f. sp.dianthi in een van de twee getoetste gronden. Ammoniak lijkt niet verantwoordelijk voor deze afname, aangezien ammoniak in beide gronden gelijkelijk ontwikkelde na toevoeging van ureum of NH4Cl. Toevoeging van Nitrapyrine tesamen met ureum of NH4Cl aan de ‘actieve’ grond verhoogde de concentratie ammoniak in de grond, maar verlaagde het remmend effect. Toevoeging van nitraat in hoeveelheden die overeenkoment met die welke gemeten worden na volledige omzetting van ureum had geen effect op de populatie vanF. oxysporum f. sp.dianthi. Toevoeging van nitriet in hoeveelheden die overeenkomen met die welke gemeten worden na volledige afbraak van ureum verminderde de populatie wel. In vitro remde nitriet de chlamydosporevorming vanF. oxysporum f. sp.dianthi. Toediening van 0.1% ureum aan de grond gaf een 10 tot 100 maal hogere nitrietaccumulatie in de ‘actieve’ gron dan in de ‘niet-actieve’ grond. Daarom wordt de conclusie getrokken, dat nitriet veeleer dan ammoniak verantwoordelijk is voor de vermindering van de populatie vanF. oxysporum f. sp.dianthi in grond waaraan ammoniak-genererende verbindingen zijn toegevoegd.

Additional Keywords

Ammonia Nitrapyrine 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Chun, D. & Lockwood, J.L., 1985. Reduction ofPhytium ultimum, thielaviopsis basicola andMacrophomina phaseolina populations in soil associated with ammonia generated from urea. Pl. Dis. 69: 154–158.Google Scholar
  2. Gams, W. & Laar, W. van, 1982. The use of Solacol (validamycin) as a growth retardant in the isolation of soil fungi. Neth. J. Pl. Path. 88: 39–45.Google Scholar
  3. Gilpatrick, J.D., 1969. Effect of soil amendments upon inuculum survival and function inPhytophthora root rot of avocado. Phytopathology 59: 979–985.Google Scholar
  4. Komada, H., 1975. Development of a selective medium for quantitative isolation ofF. oxysporum from natural soils. Rev. Plant prot. Res. 8: 114–125.Google Scholar
  5. Löffler, H.J.M. & Schippers, B., 1985. Ammonia-induced mycostasis is not mediated by enhanced release of carbon compounds. Can. J. Microbiol. 30: 1038–1041.Google Scholar
  6. Löffler, H.J.M. & Schippers, B., 1985. Inhibition of chlamydospore production inF. oxysporum by ammonia and high ion-concentrations. Can. J. Microbiol. 31: 508–513.Google Scholar
  7. Löffler, H.J.M., Koelman, A., Nielander H.B. & Schippers, B., 1986. Reduced chalmydopore formation and enhanced lysis of chlamydospores ofFusarium oxysporum in soil with added urea or ammoniumchloride. Biol. Fert. Soils (in press).Google Scholar
  8. Papavizas, G.C. & Lumsden, R.D., 1980. Biological control of soilborne fungal propagules. A. Rev. Phytopathol. 18: 389–413.Google Scholar
  9. Schippers, B., 1972. Reduced chlamydospore formation and lysis of macoconidia ofFusarium solani f.cucurbitae in nitrogen amended soil. Neth. J. Pl. Path. 78: 189–197.Google Scholar
  10. Schippers, B. & Weyer, W.M.M.M. de, 1972. Chlamydospore formation and lysis of macroconidia ofFusarium solani f.cucurbitae in chitin-amended soil. Neth. J. Pl. Path. 78: 45–54.Google Scholar
  11. Sequeira, L., 1963. Effect of urea applications on survival ofFusarium oxysporum f.cubense in soil. Phytopathology 53: 332–336.Google Scholar
  12. Smiley, R.W., Cook, R.J. & Papendick, R.I., 1970. Anhydrous ammonia as a soil fungicide againstFusarium and fungicidal activity in the ammonia retention zone. Phytopathology 60: 1227–1232.Google Scholar
  13. Sokal, R.R. & Rohlf, F.J., 1981. Biometry. W.H. Freeman & Company, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  14. Tchernoff, V., 1965. Methods for screening and for the rapid selection of elms for resistance to Dutch elm disease. Acta bot. neerl. 14: 409–452.Google Scholar
  15. Tsao, P.H., 1979. Prospects of biological control of citrus root disease fungi. Proc. Int. Soc. Citriculture 3: 857–863.Google Scholar
  16. Tsao, P.H. & Oster, J.J., 1981. Relation of ammonia and nitrous acid to suppression ofPhytophthora in soils amended with nitrogenous organic substances. Phytopathology 71: 47–49.Google Scholar
  17. Tsao, P.H. & Zentmyer, G.A., 1979. Suppression ofPhytophthora cinnamoni andPh. parasitica in urea-amended soil. In: B. Schippers and W. Gams (Eds), Soil-borne plant pathogens. p. 191–199. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  18. Zakaria, M.A. & Lockwood, J.L., 1980. Reduction inFusarium populations in soil by oilseed meal amendments. Phytopathology 70: 240–243.Google Scholar
  19. Zakaria, M.A., Lockwood, J.L. & Filonow, A.B., 1980. Reduction inFusarium population density in soil by volatile degradation products of oilseed meal amendments. Phytopathology 70: 495–499.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. J. M. Löffler
    • 1
  • E. B. Cohen
    • 1
  • G. T. Oolbekkink
    • 1
  • B. Schippers
    • 1
  1. 1.Willie Commelin Scholten Phytopathological LaboratoryBaarnthe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations