Personality disorder correspondence between the million behavioral health inventory (MBHI) and the minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI)

  • Edward A. Wise


The MBHI and MMPI personality disorder scales were analyzed for convergent and discriminant validity. Correlational data demonstrated that six of the eight scales were significantly related, while the remaining two scales approached significance. Further analyses of these data, however, demonstrated that none of the scales correlated significantly better with its convergent scale compared to nonconvergent scales. The MBHI classified significantly more of the sample as personality disordered (93%) compared to the MMPI personality disorder scales (17%). Furthermore, the MBHI tended to describe the sample as falling within the Anxious cluster of personality disorders, whereas the MMPI described them within the Dramatic cluster. Single scale codetype correspondence was found to be 15%, while two-point concordance was 12.5%, indicating very low congruence between personality style codetypes. These two measures do not appear to be measuring the same personality style constructs.

Key words

personality disorder Million Behavioral Health Inventory Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory coping style validity 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allender, J., Shisslak, C., Kaszniak, A., & Copeland, J. (1983). Stages of psychological adjustment associated with heart transplantation.Heart Transplantation, 2(3), 228–231.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association (1980).Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bagby, R. M. (1990). Status of the MMPI personality disorder scales on the MMPI2.MMPI-2: News and Profiles, 1, 8.Google Scholar
  4. Butcher, J., Dahlstrom, W., Graham, J., Tellegen, A., & Kaemmer, B. (1989).MMPI-2 manual for administration and scoring. University of Minnesota Research: Minneapolis.Google Scholar
  5. Campbell, D., & Fiske, D. (1959). Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix.Psychological Bulletin, 56, 81–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Choca, J., Shanley, L., & Vandenburg, E. (1992).Interpretative guide to Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  7. Colligan, R. C., Osborne, D., Swenson, W. M., & Offord, K. P. (1983).The MMPI: A contemporary normative study. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  8. Coolidge, F. L. (1984).Coolidge Axis II Inventory. U.S. Copyright TXU 182-026, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  9. Craig, R. J., & Weinberg, D. (1993). MCMI: Overview of the literature. In R. J. Craig (Ed.),The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory: A clinical research information synthesis (pp. 23–70). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  10. Dubro, A. F., Wetzler, S., & Kahn, M. W. (1988). A comparison of these self-report questionnaires for the diagnosis of DSM III personality disorders.Journal of Personality Disorders, 2(3), 256–266.Google Scholar
  11. Gatchel, R. J., Deckel, A., Weinberg, N., & Smith, J. E. (1985). The utility of the MBHI in the study of chronic headache.Headache, 25(1), 49–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Goldman, N., & Ravid, R. (1990). Community surveys: Sex differences in mental illness. In M. Guttentag, S. Salasin, & D. Belle (Eds.),The Mental Health of Women (pp. 31–51). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  13. Guilford, J. P., & Fruchter, B. (1973).Fundamental Statistics in Psychology and Education, New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  14. Gunderson, J., Links, P., & Reich, J. (1991). Competing models of personality disorders.Journal of Personality Disorders, 5(1), 60–68.Google Scholar
  15. Hafner, R. J. (1986).Marriage and Mental Illness. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  16. Hecker, J. E., Norvell, N., & Hills, H. (1989). Psychologic assessment of candidates for heart transplantation: Toward a normative data base.Journal of Heart Transplantation, 8(2), 171–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Hintze, J. (1992).Number Crunching Statistical System (v. 5.03). Kaysville, UT: Hintze.Google Scholar
  18. Holliman, N. B., & Guthrie, P. C. (1989). A comparison of the MCMI and the CPI in assessment of a nonclinical population.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 45(3), 373–382.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Hurt, S., Clarkin, J., & Morey, L. (1990). An examination of the stability of the MMPI personality disorder scales.Journal of Personality Assessment, 54, 16–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Hyler, S. E., Reider, R., Spitzer, R. L., & Williams, J. B. (1983).Personality Disorder Questionnaire (PDQ). New York: New York State Psychiatric Institute.Google Scholar
  21. Kiesler, C. (1991). Changes in general hospital psychiatric care.American Psychologist, 46(4), 416–421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Kessler, R. C., Brown, R. L., & Broman, C. L. (1981). Sex differences in psychiatric help-seeking: evidence from four large-scale surveys.Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 22, 49–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Kilpatrick, D. G., Miller, W. C., Allain, A., Huggins, M. B., & Lee, W. H. (1975). The use of psychological test data to predict open heart surgery outcome: A prospective study.Psychosomatic Medicine, 37(1), 62–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Livesley, W. J. (1991). Classifying personality disorders: Ideal types, prototypes, or dimensions?Journal of Personality Disorders, 5(1), 52–59.Google Scholar
  25. Mayou, R. (1991). Comorbidity and use of psychiatric services by general hospital patients.Psychosomatics, 31(4), 400–404.Google Scholar
  26. McCann, J. T. (1989). MMPI personality disorder scales and the MCMI: Concurrent validity.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 45(3), 365–369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. McNemar, Q. (1969).Psychological Statistics (4th ed.). New York: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  28. Millon, T. (1969).Modern psychopathology: A social approach to maladaptive learning and functioning. Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Sanders.Google Scholar
  29. Millon, T. (1981).Disorders of personality: DSM III: Axis II. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  30. Millon, T. (1982).Millon Behavioral Health Inventory Manual. Minneapolis, MN: NCS.Google Scholar
  31. Millon, T. (1983).Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory Manual (3rd ed.). Minneapolis, MN: NCS.Google Scholar
  32. Millon, T. (1986). The MCMI and DSM-III: Further commentaries.Journal of Personality Assessment, 50(2), 205–207.Google Scholar
  33. Morey, L. C. (1986). A comparison of three personality disorder assessment approaches.Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 8(1), 25–30.Google Scholar
  34. Morey, L. C., & Le Vine, D. (1988). Multitrait-multimethod examination of the MMPI and MCMI.Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 10(4), 333–343.Google Scholar
  35. Morey, L. C., Waugh, M. H., & Blashfield, R. K. (1985). MMPI Scales for DSM III personality disorders: Their derivation and correlates.Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 245–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Morey, L. C., Blashfield, R. K., Webb, W. W., & Jewell, J. J. (1988). MMPI scales for DSM-III personality disorders: A preliminary validation study.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44, 47–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Myers, J. K., Weissman, M. M., Tischler, G. L., Holzer, C. E., Leaf, P. J., Orvaschel, H., Anthony, J., Boyd, J., Burke, J., Kramer, M., & Stoltzman, R. (1984). Six-month prevalence of psychiatric disorders in three communities.Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 959–967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. National Institute of Mental Health (1990).Mental Health Organizations, U.S., 1986, Series CN No. 12, DHHS Publ. No. (ADM) 90-1700. Washington, DC: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  39. Peatman, J. G. (1947).Descriptive and sampling statistics. New York: Harper and Brothers.Google Scholar
  40. Reich, J. (1987). Instruments measuring DSM-III and DSM-III-R personality disorders.Journal of Personality Disorders, 1, 220–240.Google Scholar
  41. Schwartz, M., Wiggins, J., & Norko, M. (1989). Prototypes, ideal types, and personality disorders: The return to classical psychiatry.Journal of Personality Disorders, 3(1), 1–9.Google Scholar
  42. Smith, D., Carroll, J., & Fuller, G. (1988). The relationship between the MCMI and MMPI in a private outpatient mental health clinic population.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44(2), 165–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Tracy, H. M., Green, C., & McCleary, J. (1987). Noncompliance in hemodialysis patients as measured with the MBHI.Psychology and Health, 1(4), 411–423.Google Scholar
  44. Tryer, P. (1988). What's wrong with DSM-III personality disorders?Journal of Personality Disorders, 2(4), 281–291.Google Scholar
  45. Weisberg, M. B., & Page, S. (1988). MBHI and perceived efficacy of home and hospital dialysis.Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 6(3–4), 408–422.Google Scholar
  46. Weissman, M. M., & Klerman, G. (1977). Sex differences and the epidemiology of depression.Archives of General Psychiatry, 34, 98–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Widiger, T. A. (1991). Definition, diagnosis and differentiation.Journal of Personality Disorders, 5(1), 42–51.Google Scholar
  48. Widiger, T., & Frances, A. (1985a). Axis II personality disorders: Diagnostic and treatment issues.Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 42(6), 619–627.Google Scholar
  49. Widiger, T., & Frances, A. (1985b). The DSM-III personality disorders: Perspectives from psychology.Archives of General Psychiatry, 42(6), 616–623.Google Scholar
  50. Widiger, T., & Frances, A. (1987). Interviews and Inventories for the measurement of personality disorders.Clinical Psychology Review, 1, 49–75.Google Scholar
  51. Widiger, T., & Rogers, J. (1989). Prevalence and comorbidity of personality disorders.Psychiatric Annals, 19(3), 132–136.Google Scholar
  52. Widiger, T., & Sanderson, C. (1987). The congruent and discriminant validity of the MCMI as a measure of the DSM III personality disorders.Journal of Personality Assessment, 51(2), 228–242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Wiggins, J., & Pincus, A. (1989). Conceptions of personality disorders and dimensions of personality.Psychological Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1(4), 305–316.Google Scholar
  54. Wise, E. A. (1994). Personality style codetype concordance between the MCMI and MBHI.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 50(3), 367–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Zachary, R. A. (1986).Shipley Institute of Living Scale: Revised manual. Los Angles: CA, WPS.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edward A. Wise
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Health Sciences, Psychiatry DepartmentMental Health Resources and University of TennesseeMemphis

Personalised recommendations