Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 96, Issue 6, pp 343–364 | Cite as

Simulation of damage in winter wheat caused by the grain aphid Sitobion avenae. 1. Quantification of the effects of honeydew on gas exchange of leaves and aphid populations of different size on crop growth

  • W. A. H. Rossing
  • L. A. J. M. Van De Wiel
Article

Abstract

Damage in winter wheat caused by the grain aphidSitobion avenae F., was studied in the laboratory and at field level.

Honeydew substitute solution was applied to flag leaves of winter wheat plants. One and fifteen days after application, the rates of net carbon dioxide assimilation and transpiration were measured. The rate of dark respiration was significantly higher one day after application of honeydew substitute as compared to the control. Other parameters describing the carbon dioxide — light response were not significantly affected. Fifteen days after honeydew substitute application, the two experimental years yielded different results. Under hot and dry conditions, the rate of dark respiration was higher while the late of carbon dioxide assimilation at high irradiance, the mesophyll conductance and the leaf nitrogen content were lower than for the untreated control. In addition, chlorotic symptoms were visible. At moderate temperature and relative humidity, the initial light use efficiency was significantly lower fifteen days after treatment with honeydew substitute whereas other parameters were not significantly affected.

In field experiments at two locations natural aphid populations consisting of mainlyS. avenae were treated weekly with an aphicide from crop development stages DC 71, 73, 75 and 77, respectively, to create infestations of different size and duration. In the unsprayed controls densities reached 15.8 and 44.4 aphids per tiller, amounting to 182 and 544 aphid-days, respectively. Crop samples were analysed weekly, starting at flowering. At the smaller natural infestation, no significant effect on any yield component nor on yield was found at any treatment. The larger infestation caused a significant reduction of leaf area index, leaf weight, amount of water-soluble carbohydrates and grain weight on various sample dates when the infestation was not sprayed before DC 75. No effects were found on tiller and grain density nor on nitrogen content of plant parts at harvest.

Samenvatting

Schade in wintertarwe veroorzaakt door de grote graanluisSitobion avenae F., werd bestudeerd in laboratarium-en veldproeven.

De vlagbladeren van wintertarweplanten werden behandeld met honingdauw-substituut-oplossing. Eén en vijftien dagen na behandeling werden de netto fotosynthesesnelheid en de transpiratie van de behandelde bladeren gemeten. Na één dag werd een verhoging van de donkerademhaling gemeten in vergelijking met de controle. Vijtien dagen na behandeling werden verschillende resultaten gevonden in de twee experimentele jaren. Onder warme en droge omstandigheden in 1986 was de donkerademhaling oger terwijl de fotosynthese bij verzadigende lichtintensiteiten, de geleidbaarheid van het mesofyl en het stikstofgehalte van de bladeren lager waren dan in de controle. Ook werden chlorotische vlekken waargenomen. Bij gematigde temperaturen en relatieve vochtigheid in 1987 werd een verlaging van de initiële efficiëntie van lichtbenutting gemeten.

In twee veldexperimenten werd een natuurlijke aantasting van voornamelijkS. avenae op verschillende tijdstippen chemisch bestreden. Op deze wijze werden aantastingen van verschillende omvang en duur verkregen. Vanaf bloei van het gewas werden wekelijks gewasmonsters geanalyseerd. Een natuurlijke aantasting vanaf DC 71 met een bladluisindex van 182 en een piekdichtheid van 15,8 bladluizen per halm, leidde niet tot significante reduktie van de gewasproduktie. Een aantasting beginnend in DC 71 met een bladluisindex van 544 en een piekdichtheid van 44,4 leidde tot significante verlaging van de bladoppervlakteïndex, de blad biomassa, de hoeveelheid water-oplosbare koolhydraten en het korrelgewicht. Geen effekten werden waargenomen op halm-en korreldichtheid of op het stikstofgehalte van plantedelen bij de oogst.

Additional keywords

photosynthesis carbon dioxide assimilation 

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Copyright information

© Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. A. H. Rossing
    • 1
  • L. A. J. M. Van De Wiel
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Theoretical Production EcologyWageningen Agricultural UniversityWageningenthe Netherlands

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