Geofisica pura e applicata

, Volume 52, Issue 1, pp 173–188 | Cite as

Empirical forcing functions for the large-scale mean disturbances in the atmosphere

  • Barry Saltzman


Fundamental equations governing the forced response of the atmosphere to the fixed sources and sinks of heat and momentum are reviewed. Empirical forcing functions, computed from data for the winter of 1950, representing the effects only of the horizontal transient eddy transport field, are presented. These appear to be of the same order as is required to account for the observed mean conditions and, hence, should be included in the general theory of the mean state along with other diabatic and mechanical effects which have been considered previously.


Atmosphere General Theory Mechanical Effect Fundamental Equation Forced Response 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Buch H. (1954):Hemispheric wind conditions during the year 1950. Final Rpt., Part II, M.I.T. General Circulation Project, Contract No. AF 19-122-153, 126 pp.Google Scholar
  2. Charney J. G. &A. Eliassen (1949):A numerical method for predicting the perturbations of the middle latitude westerlies. Tellus, 1, 38–54.Google Scholar
  3. Kasahara A. (1961):A numerical experiment on the development of a tropical cyclone. Journal of Meteorology, 18, 259–282.Google Scholar
  4. Murakami T. (1957):The mean vertical velocity and heat supply during the rainy season near Japan. Papers in Meteorology and Geophysics, Japan, 8, 109–132.Google Scholar
  5. Murakami T. (1960):On the maintenance of kinetic energy of the large-scale stationary disturbances in the atmosphere. Sci. Rpt. No. 2, M.I.T. Planetary Project, Contract No. AF 19 (604)-6108, 42 pp.Google Scholar
  6. Peixoto J. P. (1958):Hemispheric humidity conditions during the year 1950. Sci. Rpt. No. 3, M.I.T. General Circulation Project, Contract No. AF 19 (604)-2242, 142 pp.Google Scholar
  7. Peixoto J. P. (1960):Hemispheric temperature conditions during the year 1950. Sci. Rpt. No. 4, M.I.T. Planetary Circulations Project, Contract No. AF 19 (604)-6108, 211 pp.Google Scholar
  8. Saltzman B. (1961):Perturbation equations for the time-average state of the atmosphere including the effects of transient disturbances. Geofisica pura e applicata, 48, 143–150.Google Scholar
  9. Smagorinsky J. (1953):Dynamical influence of largescale heat sources and sinks on the quasi-stationary mean motions of the atmosphere. Quart. J. R. Met. Soc., 79, 342–366.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Istituto Geofisico Italiano 1962

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Saltzman
    • 1
  1. 1.The Travelers Research Center, Inc.Hartford(USA)

Personalised recommendations