Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen

, Volume 37, Issue 1–4, pp 5–33 | Cite as

Ecology of marine parasites

  • K. Rohde
General Aspects


Important ecological aspects of marine parasites are discussed. Whereas effects of parasites on host individuals sometimes leading to death are known from many groups of parasites, effects on host populations have been studied much less. Mass mortalities have been observed mainly among hosts occurring in abnormally dense populations or after introduction of parasites by man. As a result of large-scale human activities, it becomes more and more difficult to observe effects of parasites on host populations under “natural” conditions. Particular emphasis is laid on ecological characteristics of parasites, such as host range and specificity, microhabitats, macrohabitats, food, life span, aggregated distribution, numbers and kinds of parasites, pathogenicity and mechanisms of reproduction and infection and on how such characteristics are affected by environment and hosts. It is stressed that host specificity indices which take frequency and/or intensity of infection into account, are a better measure of restriction of parasites to certain hosts than “host range” which simply is the number of host species found to be infected.


Waste Water Dense Population Human Activity Water Management Water Pollution 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Literature cited

  1. Arthur, J. R., Margolis, L., Whitaker, D. J., McDonald, T. E., 1982. A quantitative study of economically important parasites of walleye pollock(Theragra chalcogramma) from British Columbian waters and effects of postmortem handling on their abundance in the musculature. — Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci.39 710–726.Google Scholar
  2. Bainbridge, R., 1960. Speed and stamina in three fish. — J. exp. Biol.37 129–153.Google Scholar
  3. Balozet, L., Sicard, M., 1960. Un hemiuride parasite de l'anguille. — Archs Inst. Pasteur Algérie38 44–49.Google Scholar
  4. Berland, B., 1961. CopepodOmmatokoita elongata (Grant) in the eyes of the Greenland shark — a possible cause of mutual dependence. — Nature, Lond.191 829–830.Google Scholar
  5. Berland, B., 1980. Are parasites always harmful? — Proc. EMOP. Cambridge,3 1–202.Google Scholar
  6. Bishop, Y. M. M., Margolis, L., 1955. Statistical examination ofAnisakis larvae (Nematoda) in herring(Clupea pallasi) of the British Columbia coast. — J. Fish. Res. Bd Can.23 571–592.Google Scholar
  7. Boyce, N. P., 1967. Some aspects of the biology ofLecithaster (Trematoda: Hemiuridae) of the West Coast of British Columbia. M. Sc. thesis, Dep. of Biology, Univ. of Calgary, 77 pp.Google Scholar
  8. Brandal, P. O., Egidius, E., Romslo, I., 1976. Host blood: a major component for the parasitic copepodLepeophtheirus salmonis Kroyeri 1838 (Crustacea: Caligidae). — Norw. J. Zool.24 341–343.Google Scholar
  9. Burreson, E. M., 1979. Structure and life cycle ofTrypanoplasma beckeri sp. n. (Kinetoplastida), a parasite of the cabezon,Scorpaenichthys marmoratus, in Oregon coastal waters. — J. Protozool.26 343–347.Google Scholar
  10. Burreson, E. M., 1982. The life cycle ofTrypanoplasma bullocki (Zoomastigophorea: Kinetoplastida). — J. Protozool.29 72–77.Google Scholar
  11. Bychowsky, B. E., 1957. Monogenetic trematodes. Am. Inst. Biol. Sci., Washington, 627 pp.Google Scholar
  12. Bychowsky, B. E., Nagibina, L. F., 1967. On “intermediate” hosts in monogeneans (Monogenoidea). (Russ.) — Parazitologiya1 117–123.Google Scholar
  13. Cannon, L. R. G., 1977a. Some ecological relationships of larval ascaridoids from south-eastern Queensland marine fishes. — Int. J. Parasit.7 227–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cannon, L. R. G., 1977b. Some larval ascaridoids from south-eastern Queensland marine fishes. — Int. J. Parasit.7 233–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Crofton, H. D., 1971. A quantitative approach to parasitism. — Parasitology62 179–193.Google Scholar
  16. Dogiel, V. A., Bychowsky, B. E., 1934. Parasite fauna of the fishes of the Aral Sea. (Russ.) — Parazit. Sb.4 241–346.Google Scholar
  17. Dogiel, V. A., Lutta, A. S., 1937. Mortality among spiny sturgeon of the Aral Sea in 1936. (Russ.) — Ryb. Khoz.12 26–27.Google Scholar
  18. Dollfus, R. P., 1953. Aperçu général sur l'histoire naturelle des parasites animaux de la morue Atlanto-ArctiqueGadus callarias L. (=morhua L.) et leur distribution géographique. Lechevalier, Paris, 423 pp. (Encycl. Biol. 43).Google Scholar
  19. Dubinina, V. B., 1949. Relation between the distribution of larvae of parasitic helminths in the fishes of the Volga delta and changes in concentration of birds. (Russ.) — Zool. Zh.28.Google Scholar
  20. Frankland, H. M. T., 1955. The life history and bionomics ofDiclidophora denticulata (Trematoda: Monogenea). — Parasitology45 313–351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Geller, E. R., 1957. Epizootiology ofContracaecum infection of sterlet,Acipenser ruthenus. (Russ.) — Zool. Zh.36 1441–1447.Google Scholar
  22. Halton, D. W., 1978. Trans-tegumental absorption of L-alanine and L-leucine by a monogenean,Diclidophora merlangi. — Parasitology76 29–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Hoshina, T., 1968. On the monogenetic trematode,Benedenia seriolae parasitic on yellowtail. — Bull. Off. int. Épizoot.69 1179–1191.Google Scholar
  24. Jahn, T. L., Kuhn, L. R., 1932. The life history ofEpibdella melleni MacCallum, 1927, a monogenetic trematode parasitic on marine fishes. — Biol. Bull. mar. biol. Lab., Woods Hole62 89–111.Google Scholar
  25. Kabata, Z., 1970. Diseases of fish I. Crustacea as enemies of fishes. T. F. H. Publ., Jersey City, 171 pp.Google Scholar
  26. Kearn, G. C., 1963. The life cycle of the monogeneanEntobdella soleae, a skin parasite of the common sole. — Parasitology53 253–263.Google Scholar
  27. Kearn, G. C., 1967. Experiments on host-finding and host-specificity in the monogenean skin parasiteEntobdella soleae. — Parasitology57 585–605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Kearn, G. C., 1970. The physiology and behaviour of the monogenean skin parasiteEntobdella soleae in relation to its host(Solea solea). In: Ecology and physiology of parasites. Ed. by A. M. Fallis. Hilger, London, 161–187.Google Scholar
  29. Kearn, G. C., 1973. An endogenous circadian hatching rhythm in the monogenean skin parasiteEntobdella soleae, and its relationship to the activity of the host(Solea solea). — Parasitology66 101–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Kearn, G. C., 1974a. Nocturnal hatching in the monogenean skin parasiteEntobdella hippoglossi from the halibut,Hippoglossus hippoglossus. — Parasitology68 161–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Kearn, G. C., 1974b. The effects of fish skin mucus on hatching in the monogenean parasiteEntobdella soleae from the skin of the common sole,Solea solea. — Parasitology68 173–188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Kearn, G. C., 1975a. Hatching in the monogenean parasiteDictyocotyle coeliaca from the body cavity ofRaja naevus. — Parasitology70 87–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Kearn, G. C., 1975b. The mode of hatching of the monogeneanEntobdella soleae, a skin parasite of the common sole(Solea solea). — Parasitology71 419–431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Kearn, G. C., MacDonald, S., 1976. The chemical nature of the host hatching factors in monogenean skin parasitesEntobdella soleae andAcanthocotyle lobianchi. — Int. J. Parasit.6 457–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kennedy, C. R., 1975. Ecological animal parasitology. Blackwell, Oxford. 163 pp.Google Scholar
  36. Kennedy, C. R., 1976. Ecological aspects of parasitology. North Holland Publ., Amsterdam, 474 pp.Google Scholar
  37. Khan, R. A., 1976. The life cycle ofTrypanosoma murmanensis Nikitin. — Can. J. Zool.54 1840–1849.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Khan, R. A., 1977a. Susceptibility of marine fish to trypanosome. — Can. J. Zool.55 1235–1241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Khan, R. A., 1977b. Infectivity ofTrypanosoma murmanensis to the leech,Johanssonia sp. — Can. J. Zool.55 1698–1700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Khan, R. A., 1978. Longevity ofTrypanosoma murmanensis in the marine leech,Johanssonia sp. — Can. J. Zool.56 2061–2063.Google Scholar
  41. Khan, R. A., 1980. The leech as a vector of a fish piroplasm. — Can. J. Zool.58 1631–1637.Google Scholar
  42. Khan, R. A., 1982. Biology of the marine piscicolid leechJohanssonia arctica (Johansson) from Newfoundland. — Proc. helminth. Soc. Wash.49 266–278.Google Scholar
  43. Lester, R. J. G., 1980. Host-parasite relations in some didymozoid trematodes. — J. Parasit.66 527–531.Google Scholar
  44. Llewellyn, J., 1962. The life histories and population dynamics of monogenean gill parasites ofTrachurus trachurus. — J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K.42 587–600.Google Scholar
  45. Llewellyn, J., 1964. The effects of the host and its habits on the morophology and life-cycle of a monogenean parasite. In: Parasitic worms and aquatic conditions. Ed. by R. Ergens & B. Rysavy. Czechoslovak. Acad. Sci., Prague, 147–152.Google Scholar
  46. Llewellyn, L. C., 1965. Some aspects of the biology of the marine leechHemibdella soleae. — Proc. zool. Soc. Lond.145 509–528.Google Scholar
  47. Lutta, A. S., 1941a. Infection of Aral Sea sturgeon(Acipenser nudiventris) with the gill trematodeNitzschia sturionis. (Russ.) — Trudý leningr. Obshch. Estest.68 40–60.Google Scholar
  48. Lutta, A. S., 1941b. Inflammation of the guills inAcipenser nudiventris caused by the monogeneanNitzschia sturionis. (Russ.) — Zool. Zh.20 520–527.Google Scholar
  49. MacDonald, S., 1975. Hatching rhythms in three species ofDiclidophora (Monogenea) with observations on host behaviour. — Parasitology71 211–228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. MacKenzie, K., Liversidge, J. M., 1975. Some aspects of the biology of the cercaria and metacercaria ofStephanostomum baccatum (Nicoll, 1907) Manter, 1934 (Digenea: Acanthocolpidae). — J. Fish Biol.7 247–256.Google Scholar
  51. McVicar, A. H., Fletcher, T. C., 1970. Serum factors inRaja radiata toxic toAcanthobothrium quadripartitum (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea), a parasite specific toR. naevus. — Parasitol.61 55–63.Google Scholar
  52. McVicar, A. H., MacKenzie, K., 1977. Effects of different systems of monoculture on marine fish parasites. In: Origins of pest, parasite, disease and weed problems. Ed. by G. M. Cherrett & G. R. Sagar. Blackwell, Oxford, 163–182.Google Scholar
  53. Magnan, A., 1930. Les caractéristiques géométriques et physiques des poissons. — Annls Sci. nat.13 355–489.Google Scholar
  54. Margolis, L., 1967. Blood feeding inSalvelinema walkeri (Nematoda: Cystidicolinae), a parasite of Coho salmon(Oncorhynchus kisutch). — Can. J. Zool.4 1295–1296.Google Scholar
  55. Margolis, L., Boyce, N. P., 1969. Life span, maturation, and growth of two hemiurid trematodes,Tubulovesicula lindbergi andLecithaster gibbosus, in Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus). — J. Fish. Res. Bd Can.26 893–907.Google Scholar
  56. Matthews, R. A., 1973. The life cycle ofBucephalus harimeanus Lacaze-Duthiers, 1854 fromCardium edule L. — Parasitology67 341–350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. May, R. M., 1977. Dynamical aspects of host-parasite associations: Crofton's model revisited. — Parasitology75 259–276.Google Scholar
  58. Meskal, F. H., 1967. Seasonal fluctuations in the population of two common trematode species from the stomach of the cod. — Sarsia26 13–26.Google Scholar
  59. Möller, H., 1974. Untersuchungen über die Parasiten der Flunder(Platichthys flesus L.) in der Kieler Förde. — Ber. dt. wiss. Kommn Meeresforsch.23 136–149.Google Scholar
  60. Möller, H., 1975. Die Parasiten des Dorsches (Gadus morhua L.) in der Kieler Förde. — Ber. dt. wiss. Kommn Meeresforsch.24 71–78.Google Scholar
  61. Murray, M. D., 1976. Insect parasites of marine birds and mammals. In: Marine insects. Ed. by L. Cheng. North-Holland Publ., Amsterdam, 79–96.Google Scholar
  62. Nigrelli, R. F., 1937. Further studies on the susceptibility and acquired immunity of marine fishes toEpibdella melleni, a monogenetic trematode. — Zoologica, N.Y.22 185–192.Google Scholar
  63. Noble, E. R., 1963. The relations between Trichodina and metozoan parasites on gills of fish. In: Progress in protozoology. Ed. by J. Ludvik, J. Lom & J. Vavra. Czechoslovak. Akad. Sci., Prague, 521–523.Google Scholar
  64. Olson, R. E., Pratt, I., 1971. The life cycle and larval development ofEchinorhynchus lageniformis Ekbaum, 1938 (Acanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae). — J. Parasit.57 143–149.Google Scholar
  65. Paperna, I., 1975. Parasites and diseases of the grey mullet (Mugilidae) with special reference to the seas of the near east. — Aquaculture5 65–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Paperna, I., Overstreet, R. M., 1981. Parasites and diseases of mullets (Mugilidae). In: Aquaculture of Grey Mullets. Ed. by O. H. Oren. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 411–493.Google Scholar
  67. Pearson, J. C., 1968. Observations on the morphology and life-cycle ofPaucivitellosus fragilis Coil, Reid and Kuntz, 1965 (Trematoda: Bivesiculidae). — Parasitology58 769–788.Google Scholar
  68. Petrushevsky, G. K., Shulman, S. S., 1961. The parasitic diseases of fishes in the natural waters of the USSR. In: Parasitology of fishes. Ed. by V. A. Dogiel, G. K. Petrushevsky & Yu. I. Polyansky. Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh, 299–319.Google Scholar
  69. Polyansky, Yu. I., 1961. Ecology of parasites of marine fishes. In: Parasitology of fishes. Ed. by V. A. Dogiel, G. K. Petrushevsky & Yu. I. Polyansky. Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh, 48–83.Google Scholar
  70. Polyansky, Yu. I., 1966. Parasites of the fish of the Barents Sea. I.P.S.T., Jerusalem, 158 pp.Google Scholar
  71. Polyansky, Yu. I., Bychowsky, B. E., 1963. Parasite fauna of sea fish. Results and perspectives of investigations by Soviet parasitologists on fish parasites in the seas of the U.S.S.R. oc. Conf. Fish Diseases). Israel Progr. Scient. Transl., Jerusalem, 187–193.Google Scholar
  72. Popova, T. I., Gitchenok, L. A., 1978. On the question of the possibility of the existence of an intermediate host in the life cycle of monogeneans. In: Scientific and applied problems of helminthology. (Russ.) — Isd. “Nauka”, Moscow, 79–84.Google Scholar
  73. Reshetnikova, A. V., 1955. Parasite fauna ofMugil cephalus in the Black Sea. (Russ.) — Trudy karadap. nauch. Sta. T. I. Vyazems'koho13, 71–95.Google Scholar
  74. Rogers, W. P., 1957. An alternative approach to the study of host-parasite specificity. — Int. Union Biol. Sci. Coll.,32, 309–311.Google Scholar
  75. Rohde, K., 1973. Structure and development ofLobatostoma manteri sp. nov. (Trematoda: Aspidogastrea) from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. — Parasitology66, 63–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Rohde, K., 1976a. Monogenean gill parasites ofScomberomorus commersoni Lacépède and other mackerel on the Australian east coast. — Z. ParasitKde50, 49–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rohde, K., 1976b. Marine parasitology in Australia. — Search7, 477–482.Google Scholar
  78. Rohde, K., 1977. A non-competitive mechanism responsible for restricting niches. — Zool. Anz.199, 164–172.Google Scholar
  79. Rohde, K., 1978. Latitudinal differences in host-specificity of marine Monogenea and Digenea. — Mar. Biol.47, 125–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Rohde, K., 1979. A critical evaluation of intrinsic and extrinsic factors responsible for niche restriction in parasites. — Am. Nat.114, 648–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rohde, K., 1980a. Host specificity indices of parasites and their application. — Experientia36, 1369–1371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Rohde, K., 1980b. Comparative studies on microhabitat utilization by ectoparasites of some marine fishes from the North Sea and Papua New Guinea. — Zool. Anz.204, 27–64.Google Scholar
  83. Rohde, K., 1981. Population dynamics of two snail species,Planaxis sulcatus andCerithium moniliferum, and their trematode species at Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef. — Oecologia49, 344–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Rohde, K., 1982. Ecology of marine parasites. Univ. Queensland Press, St. Lucia, 245 pp.Google Scholar
  85. Rohde, K., Sandland, R., 1973. Host-parasite relations inLobatostoma manteri Rohde (Trematoda: Aspidogastrea). — Z. ParasitKde42, 115–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Rohde, K., Roubal, F., Hewitt, G. C., 1980. Ectoparasitic Monogenea, Digenea and Copepoda from the gills of some marine fishes of New Caledonia and New Zealand. — N. Z. Jl mar. Freshwat. Res.14, 1–13.Google Scholar
  87. Rothschild, M., 1938. Further observations on the effect of trematode parasites onPeringia ulvae (Pennant) 1777. — Novit. zool.41, 84–102.Google Scholar
  88. Sawyer, R. T., Hammond, P. L., 1973. Observations on the marine leechCaliobdella carolinensis (Hirudinea: Piscicolidae), epizootic on the Atlantic menhaden. — Biol. Bull. mar. biol. Lab., Woods Hole145, 373–388.Google Scholar
  89. Scott, J. S., 1969. Trematode populations in the Atlantic argentine,Argentina silus, and their use as biological indicators. — J. Fish. Res. Bd Can.26, 879–891.Google Scholar
  90. Scott, J. S., 1981. Alimentary tract parasites of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus L.) on the Scotian Shelf. — Can. J. Zool.59, 2244–2252.Google Scholar
  91. Shotter, R. A., 1976. The distribution of some helminth and copepod parasites in tissues of whiting,Merlangius merlangus L. from Manx waters. — J. Fish Biol.18, 101–117.Google Scholar
  92. Shulman, S. S., Shulman-Albova, R. E., 1953. Parasites of Fish of the White Sea. (Russ.) Isd. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Moscow, 199 pp.Google Scholar
  93. Skinner, R. H., 1982. The interrelation of water quality, gill parasites, and gill pathology of some fishes from South Bsicayne Bay, Florida. — Fish. Bull. U.S.80, 269–280.Google Scholar
  94. Sommerville, R. I., 1957. The exsheathing mechanism of nematode infective larvae. — Expl Parasit.6, 18–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Thulin, J., 1980. A redescription of the fish blood-flukeAporocotyle simplex. Odhner, 1900 (Digenea, Sanguinicolidae) with comments on its biology. — Sarsia65, 35–48.Google Scholar
  96. Timofeeva, T. A., 1978. The life-span of marine cystophorous cercariae in the external medium. (Russ.) — Parazitologiya12, 333–338.Google Scholar
  97. Walker, J. C., 1979.Austrobilharzia terrigalensis: a schistosome dominant in interspecific interactions in the molluscan host. — Int. J. Parasit.9, 137–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Williams, H. H., 1965. Observations on the occurrence ofDictyocotyle coeliaca andCalicotyle kroyeri (Trematoda: Monogenea). — Parasitology55, 201–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Yamaguti, S., 1970. Digenetic trematodes of Hawaiian fishes. Keigaku Publ., Tokyo, 436 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Biologische Anstalt Helgoland 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Rohde
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of New EnglandArmidaleAustralia

Personalised recommendations