Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 9, Issue 1, pp 31–37 | Cite as

Effects of diet on amylase expression in the mosquitofish

  • Darrell G. Yardley
  • Stacey E. Wild
Article

Abstract

Diets high in various carbohydrates were fed to mosquitofish,Gambusia affinis holbrooki, to determine the effects on amylase expression. Both amylase activity and amount of amylase protein were used as measures of amylase expression. Fish were fed for 21 days in one experiment, seven days in a second experiment and 24 h in a third. The first experiment compared responses of fish fed on a high-starch diet relative to a control diet. The second and third experiments compared responses on four diets relative to the control diet: maltose, starch, glucose, and glucose + cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). In the first two experiments whole visceral extracts were used. In the third experiment, gut and hepatopancreatic extracts were examined separately. Diet had a significant affect on the amount of amylase in all three experiments but affected amylase activity only in the 24 h experiment. Generally, glucose decreased amylase expression while maltose or cAMP + glucose increased it. Length of feeding period and tissue type also had significant effects on amylase expression.

Keywords

amylase mosquitofish fish diet regulation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References cited

  1. Albertini-Berhaut, J. 1976. Effects of dietary composition on digestive enzymatic activities in the teleost,Mugil capito: Mugilidae. Tethys 8: 357–364.Google Scholar
  2. Benkel, B.F. and Hickey, D.A. 1986. The interaction of genetic and environmental factors in the control of amylase gene expression inDrosophila melanogaster. Genetics 114: 943–954.Google Scholar
  3. Doane, W.W. 1969. Amylase variants inDrosophila melanogaster: linkage studies and characterization of enzyme extracts. J. Exp. Zool. 171: 321–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Duncan, D.B. 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics 11: 1–42.Google Scholar
  5. Falge, R., Schpanof, L. and Jurss, K. 1978. Amylase, esterase and protease activity in the intestine contents of the rainbow trout,Salmo gairdneri, after feeding with feed containing different amounts of starch and protein. Vopr. Ikhtiol. 18: 314–319.Google Scholar
  6. Hickey, D.A. and Benkle, B.F. 1982. Regulation of amylase activity inDrosophila melanogaster. V. Effects of food components on amylase and alpha-glucosidase activity. Genetica 49: 181–187.Google Scholar
  7. Hickey, D.A., Benkle, B.F., Boer, P.H., Genest, Y., Abukashawa, S. and Ben-David, G. 1987. Enzyme-coding genes as molecular clocks: the molecular evolution of animal alpha-amylases. J. Mol. Evol. 26: 252–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Hoorn, A.J. and Scharloo, W. 1978. The functional significance of amylase polymorphism inDrosophila melanogaster. V. Effects of food components on amylase and alpha-glucosidase activity. Genetica 49: 181–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hoorn, A.J. and Scharloo, W. 1981. The functional significance of amylase polymorphism inDrosophila melanogaster. VI. Duration of development and amylase activity in larvae when starch is a limiting factor. Genetica 55: 195–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jancarik, A. 1964. Die Verdauung der Hauptnahrstoffe beim karpfen. Z. Fisch. Forsch. XII, N.F.: 601–684.Google Scholar
  11. Karn, R.C. and Malacinsky, G.M. 1978. The comparative biochemistry, physiology, and genetics of animal α-amylases. Adv. Comp. Physiol. Biochem. 7: 1–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Kawai, S. and Ikeda, S. 1972. Studies on digestive enzymes of fishes-II. Effect of dietary change on the activities of digestive enzymes in carp intestine. Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish. 38: 265–270.Google Scholar
  13. Marchis-Mouren, G., Paseo, L. and Desnuelle, P. 1963. Further studies on amylase biosynthesis be pancreas of rats fed on a starch-rich or a casein-rich diet. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 13: 262–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Nakajima, R., Imanaka, T. and Aiba, S. 1986. Comparison of amino acid sequences of eleven different α-amylases. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 23: 355–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Nagase, G. 1964. Contribution to the physiology of digestion inTilapia mossambica (Peters): digestive enzymes and the effects of diets on their activity. Z. Vergl. Phys. 49: 270–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Powell, J.R. and Andjelkovic', M. 1983. Population genetics of Drosophila amylase. IV. Selection in laboratory populations maintained on different carbohydrates. Genetics 103: 675–689.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Reboud, J.P., Marchis-Mouren, G., Cozzone, A. and Desnuelle, P. 1966a. Variations in the biosynthesis rate of pancreatic amylase and chymotrysinogen in response to a starch-rich or a protein-rich diet. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 22: 94–99.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Reboud, J.P., Marchis-Mouren, G, Pasero, L., Cozzone, A. and Desnuelle, P. 1966b. Adaptation de la vitesse de biosynthése de l'amylase pancréatique et du chymotrypsinogéne à des regimes riches en amidon ou en protéines. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 117: 351–367.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Rodeheaver, D.P. and Wyatt, R.D. 1984. Effect of decreased feed intake on serum and pancreatic α-amylase of broiler chickens. Avian Diseas. 28: 662–668.Google Scholar
  20. Spannhof, L. and Plantikow, H. 1983. Carbohydrate digestion in rainbow trout. Aquaculture 30: 95–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Thoma, J.A., Spradlin, J.E. and Dygert, S. 1971. Plant and animal amylases.In The Enzymes. Vol. 5, pp. 115–189. Edited by P.D. Boyer. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  22. Yamazaki, T. and Matsuo, Y. 1984. Genetic analysis of natural populations ofDrosophila melanogaster in Japan. III. Genetic variability of inducing factors of amylase and fitness. Genetics 108: 223–235.Google Scholar
  23. Yardley, D.G. 1988. The amylase gene-enzyme system of fishes. I. Developmental expression in the mosquitofish. J. Exp. Zool. 245: 24–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Yardley, D.G. 1989a. The amylase gene-enzyme system of fishes. II. Comparison of amylases of the mosquitofish with those of the rat andDrosophila. J. Comp. Physiol. 159: 237–242.Google Scholar
  25. Yardley, D.G. 1989b. Multiple catalytic forms of amylase in the mosquitofish. Isozyme Bull. 22: 40–41.Google Scholar
  26. Yardley, D.G. 1990. Tissue-specific distribution of amylase in the mosquitofish. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 8: 179–183.Google Scholar
  27. Yardley, D.G., Moussatos, V.V. and Martin, M.P. 1983. The amylase system ofDrosophila. II. Developmental and media effects on amylase activity inD. pseudoobscura. Insect Biochem. 13: 543–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kugler Publications, Amsterdam/Berkeley 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Darrell G. Yardley
    • 1
  • Stacey E. Wild
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesClemson UniversityClemsonUSA

Personalised recommendations