In search for a source for a slow-releasing K fertilizer, the plant availability of mineral K in selected crushed rocks and mine tailings was investigated by growing Italian ryegrass for six months in small volumes of peat, loamy sand or silt loam mixed with different K-sources. The K supplied as K-feldspar was nearly unavailable to the plants, whereas nearly 60% of the K supplied as biotite and nepheline in a carbonatite, was nearly unavailable to the plants, parts. The carbonate content of the rocks and tailings seemed to be more important for the availability of the K than the specific surface of the mineral particles. It is concluded that a rock-based fertilizer containing biotite as its main K-bearing mineral and between 5 and 20% carbonate, will release K at a slower rate than soluble K fertilizers do and still supply considerably more K to the plants than is supplied from the fraction of non-exchangeable K in the soil.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Badraoui M, Bloom PR & Delmaki A (1992) Mobilization of non-exchangeable K by ryegrass in five Moroccan soils with and without mica. Plant and Soil 140: 55–63
Barraclough PB & Leigh RA (1993) Critical plant K concentrations for growth and problems in the diagnosis of nutrient deficiencies by plant analysis. Plant and Soil 155/156: 219–222
Berthelin J & Leyval C (1982) Ability of symbiotic and non-symbiotic rhizospheric microflora of maize (Zea mays) to weather micas and to promote plant growth and plant nutrition. Plant and Soil 68: 369–377.
Binet P, elGuessabi L & Salette J (1984) The potassium status of soils: significance of the “Italian ryegrass test”. Fert Res 5: 393–402
Deer W A, Howie R A & Zussman J (1992) An Introduction to the Rock-forming Minerals, 2nd edn. Essex, UK: Longman Scientific & Technical
Egnér H, Riehm H & Domingo WR (1960) Untersuchungen über die chemische Boden-Analyse als Grundlage für die Beurteilung des Nährstoffzustandes der Boden. Kungl. Lantbrukshögskolans Annaler 26: 199–215
Goldschmidt VM & Johnsson E (1922) Glimmermineralernes betydning som kalikilde for planterne. Nor. geol. unders. Bull. 108 (In Norwegian, German summary)
Hinsinger P & Jaillard B (1993) Root-induced release of interlayer potassium and vermiculitization of phlogopite as related to potassium depletion in the rhizosphere of ryegrass. J Soil Sci 44: 525–534
Jakobsen ST (1993) Interaction between plant nutrients III. Antagonism between potassium, magnesium and calcium. Acta Agric Scand, Sect B, Soil and Plant Sci 43: 1–5
Johnston AE & Goulding KWT (1990) The use of plant and soil analyses to predict the potassium supplying capacity of soil. In: Development of K-fertilizer recommendations, pp 177–203. Bern: International Potash Institute
Kretz R (1983) Symbols for rock-forming minerals. Am Mineral 68: 277–279
Kemp A & t'Hart ML (1957) Grass tetany in grazing milking cows. Neth J Agric Sci 5: 4–17
Laronne JB (1986) Rate limitation and dissolution of highly soluble minerals. In: Coleman SM & Dethier DP (eds) Rate of chemical weathering of rocks and minerals, pp 83–91. London: Academic Press Inc
Lasaga AC (1984) Chemical kinetics of water-rock interactions. J Geophys Res 89: 4009–4025
Lasaga AC (1995) Fundamental approaches in describing mineral dissolution and precipitation rates. In: White AF & Brantley SL (eds) Chemical weathering rates of silicate minerals, Reviews in Mineralogy 31, pp 23–86. Washington: Mineralogical Society of America
Mengel K & Rahmatullah (1994) Exploitation of potassium by various crop species from primary minerals in soils rich in micas. Biol Fert Soils 17: 75–79
Mjelde Ø (1983) Geologi og petrografi av nabberen nefelinsyenitt. Cand. real. thesis. University of Bergen, 315 pp. (In Norwegian)
Møberg JP & Nielsen JD (1983) Mineralogical changes in soils used for K-depletion experiments for some years in pots and in the field. Acta Agric Scand 33: 21–27.
Sanz Scovinio JI & Rowell DL (1988) The use of feldspars as potassium fertilizers in the savannah of Colombia. Fert Res 17: 71–83
Sparks DL & Huang PM (1985) Release of soil potassium by weathering reactions. In: Munson RD (ed) Potassium in Agriculture, pp 202–276. Madison, Wisc: American Society of Agronomy
Strand T (1981) Lillebukt alkaline kompleks; karbonatittens mineralogi og petrokjemi. Cand. real. thesis, University of Bergen, 287 pp. (In Norwegian)
Weerasuriya TJ, Pushpakumara S & Cooray PI (1993) Acidulated pegmatic mica: A promising new multi-nutrient mineral fertilizer. Fert Res 34: 67–77
Wentworth SA & Rossi N (1972) Release of potassium from layer silicates by plant growth and by NaTPB extraction. Soil Sci 113: 410–416
Yli-Halla M (1992) Release of K from biotite and K-feldspar. Proceedings of the 14th General Meeting of the European Grassland federation, pp. 562–564
Yläranta T, Uusi-Kämppä J & Jaakkola A (1996) Leaching of phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and potassium in barley, grass and fallow lysimeters. Acta Agric Scand, Sect B, Soil and Plant Sci 46: 9–17
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Bakken, A.K., Gautneb, H. & Myhr, K. The potential of crushed rocks and mine tailings as slow-releasing K fertilizers assessed by intensive cropping with Italian ryegrass in different soil types. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 47, 41–48 (1996). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01985717
- loamy sand
- plant available potassium
- silt loam