Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 329–342 | Cite as

Expressions of faces in sculptures and paintings as seen from an anatomical viewpoint

  • Yukio Shirakabe
  • Takehiro Shirakabe
  • Takeshi Kishimoto
  • Susumu Takayanagi
  • Tomoko Kikui
Article
  • 59 Downloads

Abstract

Knowing the fact that the differences in expressions come to characterize the personality of each person, the aesthetic surgeons conduct various kinds of surgery to draw out the personality of our patients. We need to reconsider what expression is from an anatomical viewpoint. Good examples are found among the faces in paintings and sculptures created by artists of Japan from about 1000 years ago. We understand that most muscles do not move singly, that several muscles move together. But we classified the representative muscles used to produce the expressions into 14 types and examined how the expressions were derived or changed with the movement of certain muscles. We believe that an understanding of the functions of the muscles can be of some aid when trying to draw out the rich personality lying dormant in a patient.

Key words

Anatomy Facial expression Facial muscles 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Kameda T, Tanabe S, Nagai S, Miya T: Mask and Portrait. Japanese Art (Color)23: 13, 18, 23, 24, 33, 98, 103, 121, 125, 1971.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hirai M.: Sculpture of Teikan. Japanese Art44:47, 1970Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hirai M: Sculpture of Portrait. Japanese Art10:10, 15, 16, 76, 77, 1967Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hirai M.: Unkei and Kaikei. Japanese Art78:1–3, 21, 1972Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yamazaki K.: Note of Face, 1979Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yukio Shirakabe
    • 1
  • Takehiro Shirakabe
    • 1
  • Takeshi Kishimoto
    • 1
  • Susumu Takayanagi
    • 1
  • Tomoko Kikui
    • 1
  1. 1.Osaka Shirakabe ClinicOsakaJapan

Personalised recommendations