Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 88, Issue 4, pp 143–154 | Cite as

Contribution to the taxonomy and pathogenicity of fungicolous Verticillium species. II. Pathogenicity

  • A. van Zaayen
  • W. Gams
Article

Abstract

In recent years in the Netherlands a second mushroom species,Agaricus bitorquis, which prefers higher temperatures thanA. bisporus and is less susceptible to certain diseases, is often commercially grown.Verticillium fungicola var.fungicola, the causal agent of dry bubble, is responsible for considerable damage in crops ofA. bisporus. InA. bitorquis, however, dry bubble has hardly been noticed, but brown spots due toV. fungicola var.aleophilum resulted in inferior mushroom quality. The latter variety also caused brown spots ina. bisporus, but to a minor degree. In variety Les Miz 60 ofA. bisporus, however, it also induced fruit-body deformation in a way different from dry bubble.

Verticillium psalliotae, isolated fromA. bitorquis in England, induced more confluent brown spots inA. bitorquis. In the netherlands, where moreA. bitorquis is grown than in other countries,V. psalliotae has not yet been encountered in crops ofA. bitorquis. V. psalliotae, which has a high temperature optimum for mycelial growth, likeV. fungicola var.aleophilum andA. bitorquis, did not infectA. bisporus in our trials.

Artificial infection ofA. bisporus orA. bitorquis could not be accomplished with the following related and/or fungicolous fungi:Verticillium lamellicola, V. fungicola var.flavidum, V. biguttatum, Nectriopsis tubariicola, Acremonium crotocinigenum andAphanocladium album.

Samenvatting

Vooral in Nederland wordt sinds een aantal jaren naastAgaricus bisporus ook de warmteminnende champignonsoortAgaricus bitorquis geteeld, die minder vatbaar is voor bepaalde ziekten. TerwijlVerticillium fungicola varfungicola in de teelt vanA. bisporus ’droge mollen’ en daardoor veel schade veroorzaakt, komen in de teelt vanA. bitorquis geen droge mollen voor maar wel bruine vlekken, die tot kwaliteitsverlies en dus schade leiden. De vlekken bleken veroorzaakt te worden doorV. fungicola var.aleophilum. Deze schimmel veroorzaakte ook inA. bisporus bruine vlekken, hoewel in minder ernstige mate, maar in het ras Les Miz 60 vanA. bisporus bovendien misvormde champignons, die wel op ‘droge mollen’ leken, maar daaraan niet gelijk waren.

OokV. psalliotae, in Engeland geïsoleerd vanA. bitorquis met vlekken, veroorzaakte wat meer samenvloeiende, bruine vlekken inA. bitorquis. In Nederland, waar meerA. bitorquis geteeld wordt dan in andere landen, isV. psalliotae nog niet aangetroffen in teelten vanA. bitorquis. InA. bisporus kon geen kunstmatige infectie worden verkregen metV. psalliotae, die net alsV. fungicola var.aleophilum enA. bitorquis warmteminnend genoemd zou kunnen worden.

Met de volgendeVerticillium-achtige of van paddestoelen geïsoleerde schimmels kon evenmin op kunstmatige wijze een infectie worden opgeroepen inA. bisporus ofA. bitorquis: Verticillium lamellicola, V. fungicola var.flavidum, V. biguttatum, Nectriopsis tubariicola, Acremonium crotocinigenum enAphanocladium album.

Additional keywords

mushroom diseases dry bubble mycoparasites brown spots Agaricus bisporus Agaricus bitorquis Verticillium fungicola V. psalliotae V. biguttatum V. lamellicola Nectriopsis tubariicola Acremonium crotocinigenum Aphanocladium album 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Atkins, F.C., 1966. Mushroom growing to-day. Faber and Faber Ltd., London, 188 pp.Google Scholar
  2. Bels-Koning, H.C. & Bels, P.J., 1958. Handleiding voor de champignoncultuur. Proefstn Champ. cult., Horst (L.), 295 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Biali, M., Dinoor, A., Eshed, N. & Kenneth, R., 1972.Aphanocladium album, a fungus inducing teliospore production in rusts. Ann. appl. Biol. 72: 37–42.Google Scholar
  4. Bollen, G.J. & Zaayen, A. van, 1975. Resistance to benzimidazole fungicides in pathogenic strains ofVerticillium fungicola. Neth. J. Pl. Path. 81: 157–167.Google Scholar
  5. Dieleman-van Zaayen, A., 1972. Spread, prevention and control of mushroom virus disease. Mushr. Sci. 8: 131–154.Google Scholar
  6. Dieleman-van Zaayen, A., 1975.Agaricus bitorquis en mollen. Jversl. Proefstn Champ.cult. 1974: 20.Google Scholar
  7. Gams, W., 1971.Cephalosporium-artige Schimmelpilze (Hyphomycetes). G. Fischer, Stuttgart, 262 pp.Google Scholar
  8. Gams, W. & Zaayen, A. van, 1982. Contribution to the taxonomy and pathogenicity of fungicolousVerticillium species. I. Taxonomy. Neth. J. Pl. Path. 88: 57–78.Google Scholar
  9. Gandy, D.G. & Spencer, D.M., 1978. The interaction between mushroom strains and fungicides in the control of dry bubble caused byVerticillium fungicola. Ann. appl. Biol. 90: 335–360.Google Scholar
  10. Gaze, R.H. & Fletcher, J.T., 1975. ADAS survey of mushroom diseases and fungicide usage 1974/5. Mushr. J. 35: 370–376.Google Scholar
  11. Nair, N.G., Letham, D.B. & Walker, J., 1980. Incidence ofAphanocladium album on the cultivated mushroom,Agaricus bisporus, in New South Wales. Pl. Dis. Surv. Dep. Agric. Biol. Br. 1978–79: 20–22.Google Scholar
  12. Poppe, J.A., 1972. Un excellentAgaricus tétra-sporique cultivable commercialement avec succès. Mushr. Sci. 8: 517–525.Google Scholar
  13. Schisler, L.C., Sinden, J.W. & Sigel, E.M., 1968. Etiology of mummy disease of cultivated mushrooms. Phytopathology 58: 944–948.Google Scholar
  14. Smith, F.E.V., 1924. Three diseases of cultivated mushrooms. Trans. Br. mycol. Soc. 10: 81–97.Google Scholar
  15. Storey, I.F., 1974.Cephalosporium sp. attacking mushrooms. Mushr. J. 20: 1–3.Google Scholar
  16. Treschow, C., 1941. TheVerticillium diseases of cultivated mushrooms. Dansk bot. Ark. 11(1): 1–31.Google Scholar
  17. Upstone, M.E. & Carter, M.A., 1979. The occurrence ofVerticillium psalliotae onAgaricus bitorquis in Surrey. Mushr. J. 73: 38–40.Google Scholar
  18. Ware, W.M., 1933. A disease of cultivated mushrooms caused byVerticillium malthousei sp. nov. Ann. Bot. 47: 763–785.Google Scholar
  19. Zaayen, A. van, 1976. Immunity of strains ofAgaricus bitorquis to mushroom virus disease. Neth. J. Pl. Path. 82: 121–131.Google Scholar
  20. Zaayen, A. van, 1981.Verticillium sp., a pathogen ofAgaricus bitorquis. Mushr. Sci. 11(1): 591–595.Google Scholar
  21. Zaayen, A. van & Pol-Luiten, B. van der, 1977. Heat resistance, biology and prevention ofDiehliomyces microsporus in crops ofAgaricus species. Neth. J. Pl. Path. 83: 221–240.Google Scholar
  22. Zaayen, A. van & Rutjens, A.J., 1981.Thermal death points for twoAgaricus species and for the spores of some major pathogens. Mushr. Sci. 11(2): 393–402.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. van Zaayen
    • 1
  • W. Gams
    • 2
  1. 1.Proefstation voor de ChampignoncultuurHorstNetherlands
  2. 2.Centraalbureau voor SchimmelculturesBaarnNetherlands

Personalised recommendations