Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 80, Issue 1, pp 28–36 | Cite as

The effect of root-knot nematodes and Ethrel on Fusarium wilt of tomatoes

  • D. Orion
  • H. Hoestra
Article

Abstract

The reaction of two tomato varieties, ‘Moneymaker’ (susceptible toFusarium) and ‘Fortos’ (resistant toFusarium) to inoculation withMeloidogyne javanica, M. incognita andFusarium oxysporum f. sp.lycopersici race1 as well as to application of Ethrel (2 chloroethane phosphonic acid)—an ethylene releasing compound—was studied. With ‘Moneymaker’, Ethrel reduced wilt symptoms drastically and this was correlated with a reduction in the number of infected vascular bundles in the stem. Height of the stems was increased. Both nematode species counteracted the therapeutic effect of Ethrel by increasing the number of infected vascular bundles. ‘Fortos’ remained resistant toFusarium in the presence of nematodes and/or Ethrel. Only, a slight tendency toward resistance-breaking by the nematode was observed. In this variety enhancement of the pathogenic effects of the nematodes by Ethrel was evidenced by increased gall size. Histological studies indicated no difference in xylem structure among the various treatments. These results support the evidence that plant growth regulators play a role in the pathogenicity of root-knot nematodes, theFusarium resistance of the plants, and the effect of nematodes on the severity ofFusarium wilt.

Samenvatting

Bestudeerd werd de reactie, van twee tomatecultivars, ‘Moneymaker’ (gevoelig voorFusarium) en ‘Fortos’ (resistent tegenFusarium) op inoculatie metMeloidogyne javanica, M. incognita enFusarium oxysporum f. sp.lycopersici ras 1, en op behandeling met Ethrel (2 chloorethaan fosfonzuur) een verbinding waaruit ethyleen vrijkomt. Bij ‘Moneymaker’ resulteerde behandeling met Ethrel in een sterke afneming van verwelkingssymptomen gecorreleerd met een vermindering van metFusarium geinfecteerde vaatbundels in de stengel (Fig. 2 en 3) en een grotere lengte van de planten (Fig. 1). Beide aaltjessoorten hadden het omgekeerde effect en verhoogden het aantal metFusarium geïnfecteerde vaatbundels (Fig. 2 en 3).

Bij ‘Fortos’ was er slechts een zeer geringe mate van verlies van resistentie tegenFusarium onder invloed van de aanwezigheid van wortelknobbelaaltjes. Ethrel elimineerde de geringeFusarium infectie geheel. Bij deze cultivar werd het schadelijk effect van de aaltjes duidelijk versterkt door Ethrel in correlatie, met een sterke toeneming van de omvang der gallen (toeneming wortelgewicht, Fig. 4). Ethrel had geen rechtstreeks effect opFusarium in reincultures.

Histologische waarnemingen gaven geen aanwijzingen voor het optreden van veranderingen in de structuur van het xyleem (thyllen) onder invloed, van de behandelingen.

De resultaten ondersteunen de opvatting dat groeiregulatoren een rol spelen bij de pathogeniteit van wortelknobbelaaltjes, deFusarium-resistentie van de plant, en de invloed van aaltjes op de ontwikkeling van,Fusarium in de plant.

Keywords

Fusarium Fusarium Wilt Phosphonic Acid Ethrel Xylem Structure 

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Copyright information

© Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Orion
    • 1
  • H. Hoestra
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of PhytopathologyAgricultural UniversityWageningenThe Netherlands

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