Experientia

, Volume 45, Issue 7, pp 674–680 | Cite as

Ecological and evolutionary dynamics of fig communities

  • S. A. Frank
Reviews

Summary

I review the status of five topics in fig research: pollen-vector versus seed production, flowering phenology and wasp population dynamics, monoecy versus dioecy, parasite pressure, and fig wasp behavior. I raise several new questions based on recent research on two components of fig reproduction: pollen-donation (male) and seed-production (female) success. I focus on how these two components of reproductive success depend on the flowering phenology of the figs and the population dynamics of the pollinator wasps.

Key words

Coevolution comparative method development Ficus fig Hymenoptera mutualism parasite phenology phylogeny pollination 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Avila, M. V., Figs and fig-wasps native to south Florida and their affinities: biogeography and taxonomy. (1989) manuscript.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Berg, C. C., Classification and distribution ofFicus. Experientia45 (1989) 605–611.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bouček, Z., Watsham, A., and Wiebes, J. T., The fig wasp fauna of the receptacles ofFicus thonningii (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea), Tijdschr. Ent.124 (1981) 149–233.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bronstein, J. L., Coevolution and Constraints in a Neotropical Fig-Pollinator Wasp Mutualism. Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 1986Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bronstein, J. L., Fruit production in a monoecious fig: consequences of an obligate mutualism. Ecology69 (1988) 207–214.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bronstein, J. L., A mutualism at the edge of its range. Experientia45 (1989) 622–637.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Frank, S. A., Theoretical and Empirical Studies of Sex Ratios, Mainly in Fig Wasps. Master's Thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville 1983.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Frank, S. A., The behavior and morphology of the fig waspsPegoscapus assuetus andP. jimenezi: descriptions and suggested behavioral characters for phylogenetic studies. Psyche91 (1984) 289–308.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Frank, S. A., Hierarchical selection theory and sex ratios. II. On applying the theory, and a test with fig wasps. Evolution39 (1985) 949–964.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Frank, S. A., Are mating and mate competition by the fig waspPegoscapus assuetus (Agaonidae) random within a fig? Biotropica17 (1985) 170–172.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Galil, J., Dulberger, R., and Rosen, D., The effects ofSycophaga sycomori L. on the structure and development of the syconia inFicus sycomorus L. New Phytol.69 (1970) 103–111.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Godfray, H. C. J., Virginity in haplodiploid populations: a study on fig wasps Ecol. Ent.13 (1988) 283–291.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Grant, P. R., Convergent and divergent character displacement. Biol. J. Linn. Soc.4 (1972) 39–68.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Grant, P. R., Ecology and Evolution of Darwin's Finches, Princeton University Press, Princeton 1986.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hamilton, W. D., Extraordinary sex ratios. Science156 (1967) 477–488.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hamilton, W. D., Wingless and fighting males in fig wasps and other insects, in: Sexual Selection and Reproductive Competition in Insects, pp. 167–220. Eds M. S. Blum and N. A. Blum. Academic Press, New York 1979.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hamilton, W. D., and May, R. M., Dispersal in a stable habitat. Nature269 (1977) 578–581.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Herre, E. A., Sex ratio adjustment in fig wasps. Science228 (1985) 896–898.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Herre, E. A., Optimality, plasticity, and selective regime in fig wasp sex ratios. Nature329 (1987) 627–629.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Herre, E. A., Coevolution of reproductive characteristics in 12 species of New World figs and their pollinator wasps. Experientia45 (1989) 637–647.Google Scholar
  21. 23.
    Janzen, D. H., How to be a fig. A. Rev. Ecol. Syst.10 (1979) 13–51.Google Scholar
  22. 24.
    Janzen, D. H., How many parents do the wasps from a fig have? Biotropica11 (1979) 127–129.Google Scholar
  23. 25.
    Kjellberg, F., La stratégie reproductive du figuier (Ficus carica L.) et de son pollinisateur (Blastophaga psenes L.): un exemple de coévolution. Ph. D. thesis. INAPG, Paris 1983.Google Scholar
  24. 26.
    Kjellberg, F., Gouyon, P.-H., Ibrahim, M., Raymond, M., and Valdeyron, G., The stability of the symbiosis between dioecious figs and their pollinators: a study ofFicus carica L. andBlastophaga psenes L. Evolution41 (1987) 693–704.Google Scholar
  25. 27.
    Kjellberg, F., and Maurice, S., Seasonality in the reproductive phenology ofFicus: Its evolution and consequences. Experientia45 (1989) 653–660.Google Scholar
  26. 28.
    Lachaise, D., Tsacas, L., and Couturier, G., The Drosophilidae associated with tropical african figs. Evolution36 (1982) 141–151.Google Scholar
  27. 29.
    Michaloud, G., Aspects de la Reproduction des Figuiers Monoïques en Forêt Equatoriale Africaine. Ph. D. Dissertation. Université des Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc. Montpellier, France 1988.Google Scholar
  28. 30.
    Milton, K., Windsor, D. M., Morrison, D. W., and Estribi, M. A., Fruiting phenologies of two neotropicalFicus species. Ecology63 (1982) 752–762.Google Scholar
  29. 31.
    Murray, M. G., The closed environment of the fig receptacle and its influence on male conflict in the Old World fig wasp,Philotrypesis pilosa. Anim. Behav.35 (1987) 488–506.Google Scholar
  30. 32.
    Ramirez, B., Ramirez, W., Coevolution ofFicus and Agaonidae, Ann. Mo. bot. Gdn61 (1974) 770–780.Google Scholar
  31. 33.
    Ramirez B., Ramirez W., Evolution of mechanisms to carry pollen in Agaonidae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea). Tijdschr. Ent.121 (1978) 279–293.Google Scholar
  32. 34.
    Ramirez B., Ramirez W., Evolution of the monoecious and dioecious habit inFicus (Moraceae). Brenesia18 (1980) 207–216.Google Scholar
  33. 35.
    Ulenberg, S. A., The systematics of the fig wasp parasites of the genusApocrypta Coquerel, North Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam 1985.Google Scholar
  34. 36.
    Verkerke, W., Anatomy ofFicus ottoniifolia (Moraceae) syconia and its role in the fig-fig wasp symbiosis. Proc. K. ned. Akad. Wet.89 (1986) 443–469.Google Scholar
  35. 37.
    Verkerke, W., Structure and function of the fig. Experientia45 (1989) 612–622.Google Scholar
  36. 38.
    Wiebes, J. T., A short history of fig wasp research. Gdns' Bull. Straits Settl.291 (1976) 207–236.Google Scholar
  37. 39.
    Wiebes, J. T., Co-evolution of figs and their insect pollinators. A. Rev. Ecol. Syst.10 (1979) 1–12.Google Scholar
  38. 40.
    Windsor, D., Morrison, D. W., Estribi, M. A., and de Leon, B., Phenology of fruit and leaf production by ‘strangler’ figs on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Experientia45 (1989) 647–653.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag Basel 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. A. Frank
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Ecology and Evolutionary BiologyUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineUSA

Personalised recommendations