Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 89, Issue 1–2, pp 31–45 | Cite as

Qualitative and quantitative variation in pathogenicity of races of coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix) detected in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

  • A. B. Eskes


Between 1977 and 1981, seven qualitatively distinct new races of coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix) were detected in breeding plots in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Four races carry complex virulence against the resistance genes SH1, SH2, SH4 and SH5 ofCoffea arabica. Three races match unidentified resistance genes ofC. canephora. Two of these were isolated from cv. Kouillou and one from the hybrid population Icatu. Pending further identification, these races were indicated by the number of their type cultures (Is. 2, 10 and 11). Is. 2 and Is. 10 showed extra virulence to some coffee genotypes and decreased virulence to other coffee genotypes, suggesting stabilizing selection.

Three rust isolates were detected which differed quantitatively from the common rust race II. Is. 1 was moderately virulent to the coffee differential for SH3 in the laboratory but avirulent in the greenhouse, indicating a host x pathogen x environment interaction. Is. 3 and 12 showed levels of virulence intermediate between race II and Is. 2 and 10, respectively.

The results show that incomplete resistance of coffee toH. vastatrix, at various levels, can be race-specific. The nature of race formation of coffee leaf rust in Brazil and breeding strategies for obtaining durable resistance are discussed.


Tussen 1977 en 1981 werden zeven kwalitatief verschillende nieuwe fysio's van koffieroest (Hemileia vastatrix) gevonden in veredelingsproefvelden in de staat São Paulo, Brazilië. Vier fysio's bevatten complexe virulentie tegen de resistentiegenen SH1, SH2, SH4 en SH5 vanCoffea arabica. Drie fysio's neutralizeren nog ongeïdentificeerde resistentiegenen vanC. canephora. Twee van deze fysio's werden van cv. Kouillou geïsoleerd en één van de hybride populatie Icatu. In afwachting van verdere identificatie zijn deze drie fysio's aangeduid met hun isolaatnummer (Is. 2, 10 en 11). Is. 2 en 10 vertoonden naast extra virulentie t.o.v. bepaalde koffiegenotypen verminderde virulentie t.o.v. andere genotypen, hetgeen kan wijzen op stabiliserende selectie.

Tevens werden drie roestisolaten ontdekt die kwantitatief verschilden van het gangbare fysio II. Is 1 was matig virulent op de differentiërende kloon voor het SH3 resistentiegen in het laboratorium maar avirulent in de kas, wat duidt op een waardplant x fysio x milieu-interactie. De virulenties van Is. 3 en 12 lagen in tussen die van fysio II en Is. 2, respectievelijk fysio II en Is. 10. De resultaten tonen aan dat incomplete resistentie van koffie tegen koffieroest, van variërend niveau, fysiospecifiek kan zijn.

De aard van het ontstaan van de nieuwe roesfysio's in Brazilië en veredelingsstrategieën voor het verkrijgen van duurzame resistentie tegen koffieroest worden besproken.

Additional keywords

incomplete resistance durable resistance stabilizing selection 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahn, S.W. & Ou, S.H., 1982. Quantitative resistance of rice to blast disease. Phytopathology 72: 279–282.Google Scholar
  2. Bettencourt, A.J. & Carvalho, A., 1968. Melhoramento visando a resistência do cafeeiro à ferrugem. Bragantia 27: 35–68.Google Scholar
  3. Carvalho, A., Fazuoli, L.C. & Monaco, L.C. 1974. Iarana, novo cultivar deCoffea arabica. In: Resumos 2o Congresso Brasileiro de Pesquisas Cafeeiras, Poços de Caldas, M.G., Brazil, p. 168.Google Scholar
  4. Costa, W.M. & Ribeiro, I.J.A., 1975. Resistência aH. vastatrix observada no café Icatu. In: Resumos 3o Congresso Brasileiro de Pesquisas Cafeeiras, Curitiba, Pr., Brazil. p. 113.Google Scholar
  5. Custer, J.B.M., 1980. Clonal propagation ofCoffea arabica L. bij nodal culture. In: Proceedings 9th Intern. Colloq. on Coffee, London., p. 589–596.Google Scholar
  6. D'Oliveira, B. As ferrugens do cafeeiro. Revta Café port. Separata no. 3. 61 pp.Google Scholar
  7. Eskes, A.B., 1981a. Expression of incomplete resistance to pathogens. In: Proceedings of NATO Advanced Studies Institute on Durable Resistance in Crops, Martina Franca, Italy, October 1981. In press.Google Scholar
  8. Eskes, A.B., 1981b. Incomplete resistance to coffee leaf rust. In: Proceedings of NATO Advanced Studies Institute on Durable Resistance in Crops, Martina Franca, Italy, October 1981. In press.Google Scholar
  9. Eskes, A.B., 1982a. The use of leaf disk inoculations in assessing resistance to coffee leaf rust (Hemiliea vastatrix). Neth. J. Pl. Path. 88: 127–141.Google Scholar
  10. Eskes, A.B., 1982b. The effect of light intensity on incomplete resistance of coffee toHemileia vastatrix. Neth. J. Pl. Path. 88: 191–202.Google Scholar
  11. Eskes, A.B., Ribeiro, I.J.A., Carvalho, A. & Paradela, F.O., 1979. Raça deHemileia vastatrix portadora dos genes de virulência v1v2v5 deferenciada no Estado de São Paulo. In: Resumos do 7o Congresso Brasileiro de Pesquisas Cafeeiras, Araxá, M.G., Brazil, December 1979. p. 122–123.Google Scholar
  12. Eskes, A.B. & Toma-Braghini, M., 1981. Assessment methods for resistance to coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix Berk. et Br.). Pl. Prot. Bull. F.A.O. 29: 56–66.Google Scholar
  13. Eskes, A.B. & Toma-Braghini, M., 1982. The effect of leaf age on incomplete resistance of coffee toHemileia vastatrix. Neth. J. Pl. Path. 88: 219–230.Google Scholar
  14. Eskes, A.B., Toma-Braghini, M. & Carvalho, A., 1981. Testes com raças novas deHemileia vastatrix diferenciadas emCoffea canephora cv. Kouillou e nas populaçoes de Icatu e Catimor. In: Resumos do 9o Congresso Cafeeiras, São Lourenço, M.G., Brazil, November 1981. p. 195–198.Google Scholar
  15. Eskes, A.B., Toma-Braghini, M., Ribeiro, I.J.A., Carvalho, A. & Paradela, F.O., 1980. Detecção da raça deHemileia vastatrix com os genes de virulência v1v4v5 no Estado de São Paulo. In: Resumos do 8o Congresso Brasileiro de Pesquisas Cafeeiras, Campos de Jordão, S.P., Brazil, November 1980. p. 91–92.Google Scholar
  16. Fanucchi, M., Beretta, M.J.G., Martins, E.M.F., Moraes, W.B.C. & Figueiredo, M.B., 1980. Verificação da presença, no Estado de São Paulo, da raça fisiológica deHemileia vastatrix portadora dos genes de virulencia v2, v4, v5. In: Resumos 8o Congresso Brasileiro da Sociedade Brasileira de Fitopatologia, Itaguaí, R.J., July 1980. p. 131.Google Scholar
  17. Johson, R. & Taylor, A.J., 1976. Genetic control of durable resistance to yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis) in the wheat cultivar Hybride de Bersee. Ann. appl. Biol. 81: 385–391.Google Scholar
  18. Marques, D.V. & Bettencourt, A.J., 1979. Resistência àHemileia vastatrix numa população de Icatu. Garcia de Orta, Sér. Est. Agron. 6: 19–24.Google Scholar
  19. Monaco, L.C., 1977 Consequences of the introduction of coffee leaf rust into Brazil. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 287: 57–71.Google Scholar
  20. Narasimhaswamy, R.L., 1961. Coffee leaf disease (Hemileia) in India. Indian Coff. 25: 382–388.Google Scholar
  21. Noronha-Wagner, M. & Bettencourt, A.J., 1967. Genetic study of the resistance ofCoffea spp. to leaf rust. 1. Identification and behaviour of four factors conditioning disease reaction inCoffea arabica to twelve physiologic races ofHemileia vastatrix. Can. J. Bot. 45: 2021–31.Google Scholar
  22. Parlevliet, J.E., 1979. Components of resistance that reduce the rate of epidemic development. A. Rev. Phytopath. 17: 203–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Parlevliet, J.E. & Zadoks, J.C., 1977. The integrated concept of disease resistance; a new view including horizontal and vertical resistance in plants. Euphytica 26: 5–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Person, C., Groth, J.V. & Mylyk, O.M., 1976. Genetic change in host-parasite populations. A. Rev. Phytopath. 14: 177–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ribeiro, I.J.A., Sugimore, M.H., Moraes, S.A. & Monaco, L.C., 1975. Raças fisiológicas deHemileia vastatrix Berk. et Br. no Estado de São Paulo. Summa Phytopathologica 1: 19–22.Google Scholar
  26. Rodrigues Jr., C.J., Bettencourt, A.J. & Rijo, L., 1975. Races of the pathogen and resistance to coffee rust. A. Rev. Phytopath. 13: 49–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Schwartzbach, E., 1979. Response to selection for virulence against the ml-o based mildew resistance in barley, not fitting the gene-for-gene hypothesis. Barley Gen. Newsl. 9: 85–88.Google Scholar
  28. Söndahl, M.R. & Sharp, W.R., 1977. High frequency inductions of somatic embryos in cultured leaf explants ofCoffea arabica L. Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 81: 395–408.Google Scholar
  29. Statler, G.D. & Jones, D.A., 1981. Inheritance of virulence and uredial color and size inPuccinia recondita tritici. Phytopathology 71: 652–655.Google Scholar
  30. Stubbs, R.W., 1968. Artificial mutation in the study of the relationship between races of yellow rust of wheat. Proc. Eur. and Med. Cereal Rusts Conf., Lisbon, 1968, p. 60–62.Google Scholar
  31. Stubbs, R.W., 1972. The international survey of factors of virulence ofPuccinia striiformis Westend. Proc. Eur. and Med. Cereal Rusts Conf., Prague, 1972, p. 283–288.Google Scholar
  32. Tinline, R.D. & Mac Neill, B.H., 1969. Parasexuality in plant pathogenic fungi. A. Rev. Phytopath. 7: 147–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Vanderplank, J.E., 1968. Disease resistance in plants. Academic Press. 205 pp.Google Scholar
  34. Vanderplank, J.E., 1982. Host-pathogen interactions in plant disease. Academic Press. 201 pp.Google Scholar
  35. Visveswara, S., 1974. Periodicity ofHemileia in Arabica selection S. 795. Indian Coff. 38: 49–51.Google Scholar
  36. Watson, I.H. & Luig, N.H., 1968. Progressive increase in virulence inPuccinia graminis f.sp.tritici. Phytopathology 58: 70–73.Google Scholar
  37. Wellman, F.L. & Echandi, E., 1981. The coffe rust situation in Latin America in 1980. Phytopathology 71: 968–971.Google Scholar
  38. Wolfe, M.S. & Schwartzbach, E., 1978. Patterns of race changes in powdery mildews. A. Rev. Phytopath. 16: 159–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. B. Eskes
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (I.A.C.)CampinasBrazil

Personalised recommendations