Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 73, Supplement 1, pp 130–151 | Cite as

Phytopathological consequences of changing agricultural methods

Fytopothologische gevolgen van veranderende landbouwmethoden

IV. Fruit crops in the open
IV. Fruit van de volle grond
  • G. S. Roosje
Article
  • 29 Downloads

Summary

After a brief review of the place of fruit-growing in Western Europe, emphasis is given to the importance of the quality of the product for the financial proceeds of the crop. An evaluation of the significance of diseases and pests in various fruit plants indicates that disease control requires a heavy investment of time, energy, and money, especially for apples. The points at which changes in cultural methods have been made or are to be expected in the not too distant future are mentioned. The most important phytopathological consequences of changes in the cultural form (planting system, tree shape, choice of rootstock), the choice of varieties, soil management and fertilization, the control of diseases and pests, and the post-harvest treatment of the fruit are discussed. Generally speaking, some diseases or pests are found to have increased in importance after changes in cultural methods have been adopted to increase the profitability of the crop. Up to the present, in most cases it has been possible to compensate for this increase by intensification of chemical control. Virus diseases in apples and fire blight and pear decline in pears are exceptions, being cases in which this does not hold.

Samenvatting

Nadat een overzicht is gegeven van de omvang van de fruitteelt in West-Europa (tabel 1) wordt het belang van de kwaliteit van fruitprodukten op de financiële opbrengst geaccentueerd (tabel 2). Een overzicht van de betekenis van ziekten en plagen in verschillende fruitgewassen (tabel 3) geeft aan dat vooral bij de teelt van appelen grote inspanningen voor de ziektenbestrijding noodzakelijk zijn. Vervolgens wordt uiteengezet op welke punten zich wijzigingen in de teeltmethoden in de fruitteelt hebben voorgedaan en zich binnen afzienbare tijd waarschijnlijk nog zullen voordoen. De belangrijkste fytopathologische consequenties van wijzigingen in de teeltvorm (plantsysteem, boomvorm, onderstamkeuze; fig. 1 en 2), de rassenkeuze, de bodembehandeling (fig. 3 en 4) en bemesting (tabel 4), de bestrijding van ziekten en plagen (fig. 5 en 6) en de behandeling van het fruit na de oogst (tabel 5 en 6) worden besproken. Meestal blijken bepaalde ziekten of plagen door veranderingen in de teeltmethoden, die ten doel hadden de rentabiliteit van de teelt te verhogen, in betekenis te zijn toegenomen. Deze toename kon tot op heden in de meeste gevallen door intensivering van de directe bestrijding van ziekten en plagen worden opgevangen. Virusziekten bij appel en „fire blight” en „pear decline” bij peren zijn er voorbeelden van dat dit niet steeds het geval is.

Keywords

Cultural Method Cultural Form Fire Blight Fruit Plant Tree Shape 

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Copyright information

© Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging 1967

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. S. Roosje
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Station for Fruit Growing in the OpenWilhelminadorpThe Netherlands

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